Vernon Dam Fishway

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ONE LAST CHANCE FOR THE CONNECTICUT RIVER

Posted by on 03 Sep 2018 | Tagged as: American shad, blueback herring, Clean Water Act, Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, Endangered Species Act, ESA, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC, FERC licensing process, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, MA Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, PSP Investments, Rock Dam Pool, shad, Society of Environmental Journalists, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Vermont, Vermont Yankee, Vernon Dam Fishway, Walpole

ONE LAST CHANCE FOR THE CONNECTICUT RIVER

Copyright © 2018, by Karl Meyer. All Rights Reserved.

Empty CT River bed below Turners Falls Dam on September 2, 2018 (CLICK, then CLICK AGAIN, to ENLARGE)

Northfield MA. On Wednesday, September 5, 2018, New England gets one final chance for a restored Connecticut River ecosystem, promised by federal and state fisheries agencies way back in 1967. That’s the day when the National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish & Wildlife Service and MA Division of Fisheries & Wildlife meet at the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project for precedent-setting, backroom settlement negotiations to decide the ultimate fate of this ecosystem–long-crippled by the impacts of Northfield’s river-suctioning, power re-generation. They will be representing the public on behalf of New England’s Great River against the interests of FirstLight/PSP Investments of Canada, latest venture capital owners of NMPS. Future generations deserve the living river system promised here long ago.

Closed river gates at Turners Falls Dam, September 2, 2018. (CLICK, the CLICK AGAIN to ENLARGE)

The last time similar negotiations took place was in the 1970s when the agencies misplaced their priorities and Northfield’s nuclear-powered (NMPS was built to run off the excess megawatts produced by the now-closed Vermont Yankee nuclear plant, 15 miles upstream) assault on the river was ignored, scuttling prospects for a river restoration in Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern Massachusetts. Those negotiations led to federal fish hatcheries and ladders for an extinct salmon strain, leaving miles of the Connecticut emptied of flow in Massachusetts, while all migratory shad, blueback herring and lamprey were forced into the industrial labyrinth of the Turners Falls power canal. That also succeeded in leaving the federally-endangered Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon with no protections at all on its critical spawning ground.

Worst of all back then, the agencies failed to protect migratory and resident fish from the year-round deadly assault of NMPS, which sucks the river backward and uphill at 15,000 cubic feet per second. Its vortex can actually yank the Connecticut’s flow into reverse for up to a mile downstream, pulling everything from tiny shad eggs to juvenile fish and adult eels into its turbines on a certain-death Northfield Mountain Sleigh Ride. A USFWS study found that Northfield killed up to 15 million American shad eggs and swallowed between 1 – 2-1/2 million juvenile shad in 2017.

Northfield’s Canadian owners are seeking a new, generations-long operating license from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The relicensing process has now completed its 6th year, with the serious work of safeguarding New England’s largest ecosystem just now coming into focus. This plant is an energy consumer, and has never produced a single watt of its own energy. It’s a bulk-grid power storage and transfer station that can only run for about 6 hours full tilt before it is completely spent and dead in the water. Then, it must go out and suck new virgin power from the bulk grid to begin refilling its reservoir with deadened river water. Its regenerated power is marketed and resold to entities far beyond the borders of the Connecticut River Valley.

New Hampshire, Vermont and Massachusetts have a lot a stake here. Way back in 1967 they were promised a just share of a restored seafood harvest of American shad, all the way upstream to Bellows Falls VT and Walpole NH. Safe passage of fish, upstream and down, has been mandated on US rivers since a 1872 Supreme Court case. But no meaningful runs of shad and blueback herring ever materialized upstream of the brutal industrial impacts and flows created at Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls Dam. In 1967 when these agencies signed that Cooperative Fisheries Restoration agreement, 750,000 American shad was the target for passage above Vernon Dam to wide-open Vermont and New Hampshire habitats. The best year, 1991, saw just 37,000 fish.

Northfield’s giant Intake and Entrainment Tunnel (CLICK, then CLICK AGAIN to ENLARGE)

As for those shortnose sturgeon? Well, investigations continue to see if there is a remnant of this river’s population surviving upstream near Vernon. But, in Massachusetts their protection from interference and guaranteed spawning access and flows should have been enforced decades back in the 2-1/2 miles below PSP’s Turners Falls dam. But none of the federal and state agencies took action.

And here, the only non-profit river groups on the Connecticut have long been power-company-friendly and connected–and still accepting their corporate money. Other major river systems have watchdogs without ties to the corporations that cripple them–putting staff lawyers and their enforcement commitments and responsibilities front and center. These go to court repeatedly–the only method leading to lasting, meaningful results. Here, no one takes corporations to court for license violations or requirements under the Endangered Species Act or Clean Water Act. Others might have led a campaign to shut down an ecosystem killing plant the day the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant shut down forever in December 2014.

4-barrel floats above a few yards of experimental test netting that’s supposed to emulate how a 1000 foot-long net might be deployed seasonally over the coming decades to keep millions of baby fish from going on a Northfield Mountain Sleigh Ride. (CLICK, then CLICK AGAIN to ENLARGE)

Thus, it is really is now-or-never time on for a living Connecticut River ecosystem. So, the big question is: are the key agencies going to stand firm under federal and state environmental statute and law, and fulfill their mandate on behalf of future generations?

Here are some of the key questions to be decided at the table that will ultimately tell the four-state Connecticut River ecosystem’s future:

Can Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station—which literally kills millions of fish annually, be operated in such a way that it complies with long-standing federal and state environmental law in order to receive a new FERC license?

Will the US Fish & Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries require PSP’s operations to cease during critical times in the spawning cycles of the river’s fish—and only operate as an emergency power source at those times, rather than as a net-power loss, buy-low/sell high profit machine? (This happens on other river systems.)

Will National Marine Fisheries require the necessary 6,500 cubic feet per second flows now absent below Turners Falls Dam—from April through June, to protect the federally endangered shortnose sturgeon in its critical spawning ground?

Will the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife at last stand up for river protections in that same 2-1/2 miles of beleaguered river to safeguard over a dozen threatened and endangered plant, fish and aquatic species?

Will the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts protect the full spawning cycle of the shortnose sturgeon by barring all rafts and watercraft from landing on any of the islands in this stretch—and banning all disembarking in the critical Rock Dam Pool spawning area to safeguard young fish, rare plants and freshwater clams?

In deference to recognized New England Native American Peoples, will Massachusetts’s Natural Heritage Program leaders, the Massachusetts Historical Commission and the US Fish & Wildlife ban access to the Connecticut River islands in that embattled 2-1/2 mile reach, where several Tribes have a documented presence and ancient connection to these extremely sensitive sites?

Ultimately, the questions that will soon be answered are these:

Does the river belong to the corporation, or to the people?
Do endangered species matter?
Do ecosystems matter?
Do federal and state environmental laws matter?
And, finally: DO RIVERS MATTER?

Coming generations may soon have their answers on the Connecticut River.

Karl Meyer has been a stakeholder and member of the Fish and Aquatics Study Team in the current FERC relicensing process for the Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls projects since 2012. He is a member of the Society of Environmental Journalists. Due to the non-disclosure agreements requested to take part in these private meetings with PSP Investments, he is not participating in these closed-door settlement discussions. The public is entitled to know.

Last chance for a Great River

Posted by on 10 Jul 2017 | Tagged as: 5-year FERC licensing process, American shad, Bellows Falls, Connecticut River, Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, Daily Hampshire Gazette, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC, FirstLight, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, PSP Investments, Rock Dam, The Greenfield Recorder, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Vermont Digger, Vernon Dam Fishway


The DEAD REACH of the Connecticut River just bellow Turners Falls Dam, 7/9/2017. (Click; then click again to enlarge)

NOTE: The following piece appeared in the Vermont Digger (www.vtdigger.org), The Daily Hampshire Gazette (www.gazettenet.com), and the Greenfield Recorder (www.recorder.com), in June.

Copyright © 2017 by Karl Meyer, All Rights Reserved

Last chance for a great river

It’s sink-or-swim time on the Connecticut River at Turners Falls for the National Marine Fisheries Service, the US Fish & Wildlife Service and the MA Division of Fish & Wildlife. Fifty years ago they signed the 1967 Cooperative Fishery Restoration Agreement for the Connecticut. It’s “Statement of Intent” was to pass “one million fish at Holyoke, 850,000 at Turners Falls, and 750,000 at Vernon,” restoring American shad to 86 miles of their spawning habitat upstream to Bellows Falls, VT. Back then a simple elevator at Holyoke Dam, 36 miles downstream, had already proven effective at passing shad upriver since 1955. Instead, the agencies opted for complexity.

Within a decade they decided to have three fish ladders built at Turners Falls, forcing all fish out of the river and into a 2.1 mile, turbine-lined power canal. That complex solution failed spectacularly. Deprived of a river route upstream, the runs withered while power company profits accrued. Instead of the 10,000 cubic feet per second flows needed for river habitats, they only required the power company to dribble 400 cfs over that dam. That also wrecked recovery prospects for federally endangered shortnose sturgeon at the Rock Dam, their ancient, natural spawning site just downstream.

Today these agencies are again on the hook to safeguard the river, and fish passage. They’re now taking part in potential backroom settlement negotiations at the invitation of PSP Investments, a Canadian venture capital outfit. PSP is the latest owner of the Turners Falls dam and canal. They also bought the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, now powered on imported, fossil-fueled megawatts that suck the Connecticut into reverse at Northfield, yank it up a mountain, and send it back down as peak-priced, secondhand electricity.

PSP, operating here as FirstLight Power, is bidding for a new Federal Energy Regulatory license for their new pension investments, where profits—and the river itself at times, will all flow north. PSP is bidding to withdraw 30% more water at Northfield for a third of the year, and get paid handsomely by ratepayers for the practice—whether they regenerate electricity with it or not. Positions taken by federal and state reps in these mandated non-disclosure, negotiations, will define this four-state ecosystem for decades to come.

On May 19th, an influx of ocean life not seen in 170 years occurred at the 1848 Holyoke Dam. In a three-day span, two elevators at its base lifted nearly two hundred thousand silver-green American shad toward spawning habitat in Vermont, New Hampshire and northern Massachusetts. Previous records were shattered. As the East Coast’s most successful passage, Holyoke has lifted as many as 720,000 shad in a season. Turners Falls has never passed more than 60,000 fish. For a full decade success there dropped to around 1-fish-in-100.

Two days after that burst of sea life through Holyoke, half those fish would’ve reached the brutal Turners Falls reach. There, confused industrial flows charge the river at all angles, and just a thin curtain of water is required to spill from the dam. Ultimately, every migrant was forced into the canal. Just a few would emerge upstream. For the rest, migration had ended abruptly—far short of rich upstream spawning grounds.

The run past Holyoke is this region’s last great migration–a pulse of planetary life, magical to witness. Each sleek, agitated shad is hell-bent on spawning as far upstream as time, energy, and luck allows. The few that found a way beyond Turners would have had little trouble following the river to the Vernon Dam. There, most could easily swim directly up a short ladder–passing the last hurdle toward that historic Great Eddy between Bellows Falls and Walpole, NH, 172 miles from the sea. Young spawned there would fatten on river-rich nutrients. Surviving adults could turn back toward the sea.

But Turners Falls has slammed the door on hundreds of thousands of others. Industrial currents, dead-end flows, and slack water offer no real path forward. The canal is their dead end. Ken Sprankle, the USFWS’s Connecticut River Coordinator, posts Holyoke fish passage numbers three times a week. Holyoke personnel happily provide them. Sadly, the MA Division of Fish & Wildlife long ago abandoned a daily presence at Turner Falls, leaving the power company in charge to pass along woefully outdated fish count numbers. By the time they reach the public its weeks past when any flow adjustments might have helped exhausted fish attempting to pass there.

Turner Falls is a black hole. There’s really no river there at all. New England’s Great River has long been owed its water–and the habitat and fish passage protections mandated by federal acts and a landmark 1872 Supreme Court ruling centered on the Holyoke Dam. Let’s hope fisheries representatives in backroom PSP talks don’t sell an ecosystem short again. Keep it simple. Fish need water and a river, and a direct route upstream–like at Holyoke and Vernon. This is the public’s river, not a cash cow. If the price gets too high, walk away. Future generations will know.

Karl Meyer of Greenfield is a member of the Society of Environmental Journalists. He remains a participating stakeholder in FERC relicensing proceedings for these sites. He is not attending these side-talks on settlements due to PSP’s mandatory non-disclosure requirements.

VERNON UPDATE: A peek into the public-trust’s black hole

Posted by on 26 Jun 2016 | Tagged as: American shad, Connecticut River, Connecticut River Coordinator, FirstLight, fish counts, fish passage, Fish passage results, GDF-Suez FirstLight, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, public trust, TransCanada, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Vermont Fish & Game, Vernon Dam Fishway

VERNON, VT Connecticut River Fish Passage Update: June 24, 2016

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Vernon Dam Fishway, and TransCanada’s Vernon Station(CLICK TO ENLARGE)

As of Friday, June 24, 2016, the best information US Fish & Wildlife Service was able to provide on Turners Falls and Vernon fish passage was a FULL THREE WEEKS OLD.

The last report CT River Coordinator Ken Sprankle had for Vernon shad passage was from June 3, 2016: 29,155 American shad passing there.

The last report coming from FirstLight at Turners Falls was yet a day older, from June 2, 2016: 45,330 American shad.

This is not a case of the USFWS’s Connecticut River Coordinator neglecting to gather the information and reproduce it in a timely manner. This falls squarely on the shoulders of the MA Division of Fisheries and Wildlife failing to ensure that this time-sensitive and important information is provided to Commonwealth citizens as part of their public trust. They have allowed GDF-Suez to maintain sole control and access to the fate of a public resource at Turners Falls, the river’s most critical and failed fish passage site.

Further, it must of course be stated that Vermont Fish & Game is in the same camp this year. As they are failing to provide this information–just a quick 20 mile, one-day scoot for a shad upstream to Vernon Dam, where TransCanada is calling the shots on providing info.

These state agencies are failing constituents they say they represent.

BUT here’s a tiny fish passage update for Vernon Dam. It’s just TWO DAYS OLD. I stopped by Vernon on my bicycle on Friday, June 24th at 10:30 a.m., just hours after that “best” stale information had been released.

Given low river flows I was happily surprised to see shad moving upstream in the Vernon windows at a good clip. Singly, and in twos and threes, and fives, I watched 20 American shad flash by and shoot upstream through bubbly, yellow currents there in just under six minutes. That fishway is a fish passage site that actually passes fish–with a nearly 70% passage rate last year.

Of course, Turners Falls fish passage remains a disaster, with all fish shunted out of the river and into the 2.7 mile power canal there: average annual passage rate is less than one fish-in-ten. And, unfortunately, Turners Falls viewing opportunities have been severely curtailed over the years. Whereas they used to be open through the week following Father’s Day, this year they closed on June 12. Thus, there is literally no on-site public access or real-time information provided on fish passage success at Turners Falls–while this year’s run is obviously still underway, given Friday’s eye-witness access at Vernon.

At Turners Falls flows have been reduced to 1500 cubic feet per second over the past weeks, and with FirstLight’s downstream Station 1 dumping attraction flow into the Connecticut, its unlikely many fish are moving upstream and able to by-pass that alien power canal habitat.

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The Connecticut below Turners Falls Dam (CLICK TO ENLARGE)

Station 1 is a source of “false” upstream flow “attraction”–which can keep shad treading water for days at a time without finding any real route upstream.

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Station 1 attraction flow (CLICK TO ENLARGE)

FISHY MISSING INFO

Posted by on 22 Jun 2016 | Tagged as: blueback herring, Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, Daily Hampshire Gazette, FirstLight, fish counts, Fish passage results, GDF-Suez FirstLight, Greenfield Recorder, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, migratory delay, New Hampshire, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Reservoir, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, public trust, right-to-know, salmon, salmon hatchery, sea lamprey, shad, The Recorder, Turners Falls, Turners Falls dam, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Vermont, Vernon Dam Fishway

The following OpEd appeared in the Daily Hampshire Gazette (Northampton,MA) and The Recorder (Greenfield, MA) in early June.

Fishy Missing Info Copyright © 2016 by Karl Meyer

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(low flows and byzantine fish ladder at Turners Falls 6/19/16:CLICK TO ENLARGE)

I’d like to change the name of a Commonwealth agency. What would you think about the Massachusetts Division of “Manufactured” Fisheries and Wildlife? I think it would offer a much better picture of the Agency’s focus, particularly here in the Connecticut Valley. Here you can get daily on-line information on where to find truckloads of thousands-upon-thousands of factory-produced rainbow, brown and brook trout before they are dumped into local rivers for hatchery-fish angling pleasure. But I dare you to find anything more than a several-weeks-old tally of the numbers of wild migratory fish streaming north here on the Connecticut anywhere beyond the fish windows at Holyoke Dam. So this would be a “truth-in-labeling” adjustment.

New England’s Great River runs for 69 miles through the Commonwealth. The MA Division of Fisheries & Wildlife is responsible for all migratory fish in that broad reach from the time they enter at Agawam, until they either remain here for spawning, or pass into Vermont and New Hampshire. Those runs are the agency’s “public trust”—to be protected for its citizens, anglers, students and future generations. But the less information the public gets on their whereabouts, the less an agency might be availed upon to actually protect them.

As we enter the final weeks of migration season the only information provided—not just days old, but nearly a month stale, refers solely to fish on the first 16 miles of river from the Connecticut border to the fish lift at Holyoke Dam. That leaves a full 52 miles of river with just a single—now uselessly outdated May 4th report about the truly wild shad, lamprey and herring now moving along New England’s flagship waterway. Salmon are not mentioned here because just three years after the US Fish & Wildlife Service stopped factory production of this hybrid, just a single salmon has been tallied. Hatchery fish production masks the reality of failing wild populations and deteriorating habitats. To date there’s been but one report on fish passage from Turners Falls.

As an interested citizen I’m a bit outraged that it’s June 1st, and I don’t have a clue about what’s going on with the wild, migrating fish coming upriver in what you have to consider as one of New England’s last remaining great migrations. Shad, blueback herring, and sea lamprey have been moving upstream for over two months now, and the only public information offered is of the absurd 54 shad counted at Turners Falls, almost a full month back. Really? This is any agency with an accountability problem.

MA DF&W has scant little to offer the public as to what they’ve been doing on the ground to protect our wild fish runs—and that includes struggling populations of state-listed, endangered shortnose sturgeon, also under their purview. But to not even take responsibility for having on-the-ground personnel monitoring runs at the river’s long-known choke point, Turners Falls, is a flagrant abdication of duty. Here in central and northern Massachusetts we not only don’t see fish because of decimated Connecticut River habitats, we aren’t even offered updated tallies on the ugly mess. But perhaps that’s by design. Connecticut’s state fisheries agency regularly provides more information on Commonwealth fish runs than does the MA DF&W.

When I recently contacted the Commonwealth’s Anadromous Fish Project Leader to inquire about fish passage information at Turners Falls, he tersely emailed back that the state no longer does those fish counts: I should contact FirstLight Power for information. I guess our fish are now fully privatized. And when it has come to the power company requesting larger and more frequent water withdrawals on the Connecticut upstream at the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, it appears the Division has never seen a company proposal it wasn’t just fine with.

This 2016 season has literally been the worst year for Massachusetts fish passage information since 2010, when FirstLight’s Northfield Mountain broke down, fouling its pumping tunnels with 45,000 cubic square yards of reservoir muck. They didn’t operate from May – November and fish passage at Turners Falls–it was subsequently revealed, had jumped 600-800% above yearly averages. We didn’t get that information until late as well. Seem a little fishy to you?

Some of us actually care about wild fish and living rivers. And, frankly, if I were reduced to thinking that following a truckload of factory fish to its dumping site for a day’s angling was a wildlife experience—well, I’d just as soon get one of those wind-up fish carousels you can hold–the ones with the tiny plastic pole and the revolving, yapping fish mouths. The Massachusetts Division of “Manufactured” Fish & Wildlife–sounds about right where wild fish and the Connecticut River is concerned.

Karl Meyer of Greenfield is a member of the Society of Environmental Journalists.

DEAD REACH REPORT: the BLACK HOLE continues…

Posted by on 09 May 2016 | Tagged as: American shad, blueback herring, Connecticut River, Dead Reach, federal trust fish, federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon, FirstLight, GDF-Suez FirstLight, Greenfield Community College, Holyoke Community College, Holyoke Fish Lift, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, New Hampshire, NMFS, Rock Dam, Rock Dam Pool, sea lamprey, shad, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Vermont, Vernon Dam Fishway

DEAD REACH REPORT: the BLACK HOLE continues…

Copyright © 2016 by Karl Meyer
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Forty-one days after the first fish were reported being lifted at Holyoke Dam, we still have not a shred of information on fish passage in the Connecticut River’s Dead Reach at Turners Falls. That’s the beleaguered, half-emptied, 2.7 miles of riverbed that all migrating American shad, sea lamprey, and blueback herring must pass in order to make progress toward Vermont and New Hampshire spawning grounds. Within that Dead Reach is the Rock Dam, the only documented natural spawning site for endangered shortnose sturgeon in this river system.

Thus, again, GDF-Suez FirstLight continues in sole control and possession of information on the public’s federal trust migratory fish—every one of which, in trying to reach upstream sites, gets diverted into their turbine-lined power canal. Once corralled and essentially privatized in that miles-long trench, very few ever emerge alive beyond Turners Falls Dam.

Holyoke Fish Lift numbers have been handed off daily to Ken Sprankle, USFWS’s Connecticut River Coordinator, for weeks now. Students from Holyoke Community College are staffing that site, overseen by the MA Division of Fisheries & Wildlife. MA Fish & Wildlife is responsible for those shad, lamprey and herring while they are traversing the Commonwealth’s reach on the Connecticut. They’re responsible for getting the public’s fish counted as well. That role up at Turners Falls is clearly not working or being taken seriously. We have no information from there whatsoever–with the video-counting apparatus controlled by FirstLight, and the review, tallies, and the hand-off of that public information left in the hands of Greenfield Community College students.

None of this speaks well for any safeguarding of the public trust.

Nevertheless, USFWS’s Ken Sprankle did provide these updates from Holyoke Dam this morning. Fish counts there as of Sunday, May 8, 2016 are: 32,937 American shad; 239 sea lamprey; and 14 federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon—all of which were brought to the top in the fish elevator, lifted out, and dropped back downstream. Virtually none of them will get an opportunity to spawn yet again this year.

To give you a sense of the miseries, one egg-laden female lifted up there had been tagged in the Dead Reach in Turners Falls 2004, as a female on a spawning site. This year, a dozen years after that tagging—she was apparently full of eggs and attempting to reach the Rock Dam for spawning once more. They plopped her back downstream on orders of the National Marine Fisheries Service. If that aging female dies over the winter, the genetic material in the hundreds of thousands of eggs she was carrying gets lost to eternity, and becomes yet another signpost on extinctions path.

Just what exactly is being accomplished by not letting these endangered fish spawn?

Meanwhile, here’s a tiny Dead Reach report of my own. I stopped by the TF Dam at mid-morning on Mother’s Day. It was drizzly, water was spilling from Bascule Gate 1(Turners Falls side), and no one was fishing at the site.

Downstream at 9:40 I met a lone angler exiting from the Rock Dam pool site at Cabot Woods. He said he’d had a few, earlier, but that it was slowing down. When I went out to the Rock Dam it was fairly quiet, with the water only moderately clear with the recent rain. Still, looking down from the rocks, schooling swirls of shad can sometimes be seen when the light is good. I saw nothing. Nor did I note any lamprey tails slapping the rock faces as they suctioned their way upstream through the notches.

According to this angler who fishes the mouth of the Deerfield as well, Rock Dam fishing on Saturday was pretty decent: “I had a dozen shad,” he noted. Thus, it’s become fairly obvious these last two springs that when flow is left in the riverbed, Rock Dam is one of the finest shad fishing sites on the Connecticut.

So, American shad have been reaching Turners Falls for 5 weeks now, we just don’t know how many are passing upstream—and we have yet to get count information from TransCanada about numbers passing Vernon Fishway. Thus parts of Massachusetts and all of Vermont and New Hampshire remain in the dark as to the whereabouts of their share of the ocean’s spring bounty.

Holyoke Fishway opened last week. You can visit, Weds. – Sunday from 9 – 5. Its on the CT, where Rt. 116 crosses into Holyoke from South Hadley. The public fish viewing facilities at Turners Falls have yet to open.

From the Rutland Herald: Where our fish are trapped

Posted by on 16 Nov 2015 | Tagged as: 5-year FERC licensing process, American shad, Bellows Falls, Connecticut River, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, False attraction, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC licensing process, New Hampshire, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, Rutland Herald, shad, shad fishing, The Great Eddy, Turners Falls, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Vermont Yankee, Vernon Dam Fishway


The following piece, with edits, appeared in the Rutland Herald on November 12, 2015.

Dear Vermont and New Hampshire:

Sorry, but your fish are down here in Massachusetts. With Vermont Yankee’s heated discharges no longer clouding issues, that’s become clear. We’re talking hundreds of thousands annually. This year a quarter million might’ve reached Vernon and Hinsdale had we not corralled them. A hundred thousand in the Great Eddy at Bellows Falls might’ve been a possibility.

And these aren’t small fry. These are free-swimming American shad straight from the briny Atlantic—wild fish that snap at lures and offer anglers an honest fight. Fresh caught and sweet, they’re a homegrown harvest for anyone taking the time to debone them or put them in the slow roaster. You could’ve been enjoying all that.

Actually you were promised them by the US Fish & Wildlife Service and state fisheries agencies back in 1967. They’d arrive in the 1980s–when much-touted fish passage facilities got built downstream. Each successive dam would pass 75% of the fish passed by the dam below it. Yet only excuses arrived. You weren’t told your fish got caught in a trap—that the Turners fish ladder diversion was a disaster; that your shad run dies in a muck-filled power canal. That’s where your bounty is still driven from the river today—where fish get diverted into a last-chance canal from which few emerge upstream.

We’ve now had the first spring where VY’s discharge has not intercepted spring runs. It appears the nuke played a smaller role than long-rumored concerning dismal fish passage at Turners. Heated effluent ain’t great for any species–but fish deprived of a river are an unending ecosystem disaster.

The 2-1/2 miles below Turners Falls Dam are that disaster. Down here government agencies don’t require anything approaching sustaining nature-like flows in the Connecticut’s bed. It’s either deluge or desert—much of it produced by the mega-flushing and pumping flows Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station sends downstream. Part of that blistering regime gets re-diverted into the power canal 5 miles south—a trap each upstream migrant is funneled into.

That canal is where a great migration dies—where fish get delayed; fatigued, entrapped and eviscerated. Not one in ten shad have made it beyond Turners Falls across the decades. It’s not rocket science to understand–in fact, the math just got a little simpler.

The years 2013 and 2014 were the final years Vermont Yankee was heating the river. Of the 393,000 American shad passing Holyoke Dam in 2013, just 9% or 35,000 fish made it past Turners. Yet of those 35,000 fish, 18,000 or 51% swam safely past Vernon–20 miles upstream. Similarly in 2014 of the 371,000 shad passing Holyoke, just 40,000 or 11% were able to get through the canal past TF Dam. But of the 40,000 that made it, a full 28,000 or 69%, swam beyond Vernon toward upstream destinations.

Turners’ fishways opened in 1980; Vernon’s in-river fishway in 1981. Across the decades the annual average of shad passing Holyoke that make it past Turners is 4%. In the same span, Vernon averaged passage of 40% of the shad arriving from Turners. Passage at Turners hovered near 1% for the decade beginning in 2000 when deregulation began allowing Northfield Mountain to pump and profit from the river according to price peaks on the electricity “spot market.” Those peaking pulses decimate river habitats below Turners Falls.

Which is why 2015 proved interesting. This spring, with VY silent, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ordered a series of nature-like test flows to be sent through the gates at Turners Falls Dam into the impoverished riverbed–to gauge their impact on the public’s fish runs. It’s part of the 5-year FERC licensing process for Northfield and Turners. At Holyoke 413,000 shad passed upstream, while at Turners just 14% or 58,000 shad passed the dam. Yet 20 miles north, 69% or 40,000 of those fish, swam past Vernon Dam—an all-time record for shad passage there.

So here’s some math: Turners passed 9% in 2013; 11% in 2014, and 14% in 2015. Vernon passed 51% of their shad in 2013, 69% in 2014, and 68% in 2015. The difference between a year with VY’s heated effluent, and one without—was insignificant, a 1% change with shad passage actually dropping a fraction with Yankee silenced. Yet they still set a new shad passage record.

It’s noteworthy the 34 year-old Vernon record was broken the first time more in-river flow was required below Turners Falls Dam, supplying a direct route upstream during FERC’s May-June test flows. It clearly spared some fish the energy costs of industrial entrapment and the dangers of weeks in a turbine-lined canal.

The problem is that canal, and a decimated river at Turners Falls. You’ve been owed fish totaling in the millions across the decades–and an ancient connection to the sea all kids should know. They’re not the power company’s fish, they’re yours. Demand federal and state fisheries directors sue for those fish—and for the Connecticut River refuge your grandkids deserve.

With apologies,
Karl Meyer, Greenfield, MA

Writer Karl Meyer is participating in the FERC hydro relicensing studies for MA facilities on the Connecticut River. He is a member of the Society of Environmental Journalists.

Spawning run ride from to Vernon; back to Turners Falls, Rock Dam and Cabot: May 17, 2015

Posted by on 17 May 2015 | Tagged as: 5-year FERC licensing process, American shad, Bellows Falls, Cabot Station, Connecticut River, Conte, Dead Reach, Federal Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC license, FirstLight, Holyoke Fish Lift, New Hampshire, power canal studies, Rock Dam, Rock Dam Pool, sea lamprey, shad, shad fishing, Turners Falls, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, Vermont, Vernon Dam Fishway

P1000388
The Headgates at Turners Falls Dam sending flow into the power canal were as quiet as I’ve ever seen them this Sunday. There seemed to just be a bit of attraction water for fish looking to get upstream, but no usual frothing rip that is usual with power generation.
P1000401
Downstream at the end of the power canal there was a nearly lake-like stillness as Cabot hydro station seemed to be producing little power.
P1000407
Looking upstream at Cabot hydro station from the bridge at Montague City, there was just a small run of whitewater coming down the spillway at Cabot. Data about these flow manipulations should be available for investigations and study results for the re-licensing
inquiries currently taking place under Federal Energy Regulatory Commission purview. They have significant impacts on fish passage.
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Three of the lucky anglers fishing Rock Dam today–two are in the boat in background.
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Rock Dam rocking with anglers and 6,300 cfs of flow.
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Letting a Rock Dam shad off the hook.

LASTLY, here’s today’s full POST:

Spawning run ride from to Vernon; back to Turners Fall, Rock Dam and Cabot: May 17, 2015

After cycling up Rt. 5 to Brattleboro early today, I headed south along the Connecticut. I was shocked to actually find the gates to Vernon Fishway OPEN! This is something that should be guaranteed to the public—regular, posted hours where the public can view their fish. Let John Rangonese of TransCanada know. There is always at least one pickup parked at the Vernon hydro station, all that’s needed is someone to walk over and open the gate; then close it upon leaving. Self-serve site, no cost involved. Public’s fish; public’s river.

Anyway, in the riot of effervescing current in the Vernon Fishway windows today were literally streams of American shad. They were running upstream like there was romance in the offing. Here, like at Holyoke, fish come directly upriver to the base of the dam. There, attracted by flows released down the short fish ladder at this modest falls, shad quickly find their way past the dam toward Brattleboro, Putney, Bellows Falls, and Walpole, NH. Today they were passing in pods at around 10:00 a.m. There were also a couple of smallmouths lower in the current, as well as one ropey sea lamprey flashing through the bubbles.
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USFWS tank truck used to transport tagged shad

Here, also, I ran into Steve Leach and his crew, from Normandeau Associates. Using the borrowed US Fish & Wildlife Service tank truck, they were preparing to tag fish and truck them a-ways upstream for fish passage studies connected to TransCanada’s hydro relicensing at Vernon, Bellows Falls, and Wilder. They’d done some previous tagging at Holyoke as well. We chatted a bit about test flows downstream, and the lack of rainfall, and the river’s temperature profile that is rising a bit early. I bid them luck, noting a few anglers fishing below Vernon Fishway—along with a perched bald eagle and a circling osprey.

After stopping to visit friends in Gill, MA, I was on the Turners Falls Bridge just a few minutes after noon. The test flow current is at 6,300 cfs (cubic feet per second) today, and the Connecticut is alive with frothy water across the wide, curving expanse formerly known as Peskeomscut. I look down at four people fishing the quick current along the Spillway Fish Ladder, just downstream of the bascule gate that’s pouring down current. In ten minutes time I watch five shad get hooked—four of them are landed, and one is lost near the waterline.

I get back on my bike and tuck in to the Canalside Rail Trail, scooting under the Turners Falls Bridge. As I come alongside the canal at the Turners Falls Gatehouse I notice that the canal is nearly quiet—almost like a still pond. This rivals the quietest flows I’ve ever seen passing through this site. FirstLight controls the headgates here–and with so few open, the fish coming up through their power canal can get a better shot at passage.

A cynical person might think they were manipulating the canal to make it look like a good industrial conduit for wild fish—especially during tagged-fish tracking surveys during test flows. One also might think this could be done to punch up fish passage numbers for weekend visitors to the TF Fishway—something that has shown up in fish passage tallies there for years. You’d think fish were only interested in migrating on weekends… Nonetheless, after well over a decade of subsidizing federal Conte Lab employees for fish passage studies and structural changes in the Turners Falls Power Canal, they have yet to succeed in passing more shad upstream than passed this site in the 1980s…

Curiously, when I head all the way downstream along the canal to Cabot Hydro Station, and then out on the deck of the General Pierce Bridge in Montague City—it is absolutely true that the TF Canal appears lake-like in its absence of flow, with just a small bit of whitewater bubbling down from its tailrace. Operators have certainly quieted the whole canal system this day.

In between I make a stop at the Rock Dam Pool, where the 6,300 cfs flows have the rocks roiling with lively current, and the anglers reeling in fish, seemingly at will. For the first time ever here I see two men standing and fishing below the Rock Dam’s fall in a motorized Zodiac type craft. Between the boat, the fishers wading out in the Rock Dam Pool, and the people tossing darts from the ledge over the pool, there are nine anglers fishing the site—eight men and a woman.

And the shad are streaming in. In the fifteen minutes I spend there, five fish are brought to shore. When I ask one guy to pause with his catch for a minute while I shoot a photo, he obliges. “How’s it been for you?” I ask. “I can’t seem to make a mistake today—I’ve had two dozen,” he tells me. “Well, I guess you know what you’re doing.” “Hey, I ran the Turners Falls Dam for 8-1/2 years,” he says. I nod, adding, “I guess then you know exactly when it’s time to come down here for shad.”
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The other great thing that has happened for anglers with these actual flows in the river: almost nobody is relegated to tossing lines in the stillness of the power canal. The anglers and the fish are all in the river.

Comments sent to FERC Re: Northfield/TF Canal Relicensing

Posted by on 15 Jul 2013 | Tagged as: American shad, blueback herring, Connecticut River ecosystem, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon, FERC license, FirstLight, GDF-Suez FirstLight, New Hampshire, Rock Dam, US Geological Service’s Silvio O. Conte Anadromous Fish Lab, US Geological Survey, US Geological Survey's Conte Fish Lab, Vermont, Vernon Dam Fishway

The following are my formal Stakeholder Comments submitted on July 15, 2013, to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission concerning GDF-Suez FirstLight’s Updated Proposed Study Plan for gaining relicensing for the Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls/Cabot Power Canal projects.  Please excuse wide line-spacing due to document format.

                                                                                                          

July 14, 2013

 

Karl Meyer, M.S., Environmental Science
Greenfield, MA  01301

 

 

 

Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
88 First Street, N.E.
Washington, DC  20426

 

Stakeholder Comments, RE: FirstLight Hydro Generating Company’s Updated Proposed Study Plan (PSP) for Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, FERC Project No. 2485-063; and Turners Falls Hydroelectric Project, FERC Project No. 1889-081

 

Dear Secretary Bose,

 

 

Please consider the following comments, changes and proposed improvements to FirstLight Hydro Generating Company’s Updated Proposed Study Plan (PSP) in order to achieve the best measurable outcomes for the public’s interest in a balanced and functioning Connecticut River ecosystem as you consider new operating licenses for hydropower generation at these two projects.

 

 

Comments refer to Updated PSP #s: 2.2.1; 2.3.1; 3.2.2; 3.3.1; 3.3.2; 3.3.3; 3.3.5; 3.3.6; 3.3.7; 3.3.8; and 3.3.19.

 

Comments:

 

 

2.2.1 & 2.3.1: Proposed Changes to Project Operation

 

FL Updated Proposed Study Plan, Numbers 2.2.1 and 2.3.1: Operator is considering additional generation by adding volume, flow and velocity in, 1(p.2-15): the Turners Falls Power Canal at either Station #1 or Cabot Station, or operating Cabot Station at full capacity; and, 2(p-2-35): at the Northfield Mountain Project.  Hydraulic capacity increase at TF/Cabot sites, and at Northfield Mountain would be near 2,000 CFS respectively.

 

Any back-dated decisions in adding generation at these two licensed sites may impact the effectiveness and criteria of studies that will be implemented in the interim, and may prove confounding to the two-year study regimen.  Both would certainly impact downstream habitats and flows.  What criteria is FirstLight looking at when deciding on new generation requests—and when will they reveal their choices?

 

3.2.2: Hydraulic Study of the Turners Falls Impoundment, Bypass Reach, (“power canal”—now omitted by FL) and below Cabot Station

 

 

Note: Hydraulic study of the TF Power Canal is a key need if this is again to be considered an upstream route for migratory American shad.  After 14 years of continuous study and project improvements near the head of the Turners Falls Canal, Gate House fish passage numbers are no more improved–nor consistent, compared to numbers of fish passing Holyoke Fish Lift, than they were a quarter century ago: Holyoke Lift versus the actual percent that were able to pass up through the TF Power Canal and through the Gatehouse: (Figures from the Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission Tech. Committee Meeting, Secretary’s Report: 6/18/2013)

 

Gatehouse passage success: 1989: 2.7%; 1990:7.8%; 1991:10.5%; 1992: 8.3%; 1993:3.0%

 

Gatehouse passage success: 2009: 2.4%; 2010:10.0%; 2011:6.9%; 2012:5.4%; 2013: 9.2%.

 

 

 

(p. 3-50) “FERC has requested that FirstLight develop an unsteady state HEC-RAS model in the Turners Falls Impoundment, bypass reach, power canal, and below Cabot Station to the upper limit of the Holyoke Impoundment.”

 

 

FirstLight states that a hydraulic study of the TF power canal is unnecessary, as surface (WSEL) elevations fluctuate very little.  “Given the power canal’s limited WSEL fluctuations, FirstLight does not believe a hydraulic model of the power canal is warranted.”

 

 

FERC is correct.  A full hydraulics study of the TF Canal is needed.  It is necessary as baseline information if migratory fish continue to be diverted into the power canal.  It will also be critical information if generating capacity in the TF Canal and upstream at the Northfield Project is increased by 2,000 cfs, respectively(2.2.1 & 2.3.1).  This would certainly impact hydraulics at the head gates and downstream in the power canal.

 

There are 14 head gates at the TF Gatehouse flushing directly into the TF Power Canal.  Surface level elevations have very little to say about actual flow hydraulics at this site.  Those head gate openings and the fluctuating head-levels from the TF Impoundment behind the dam create a region of extreme turbulence in the canal running some 500 feet downstream from Gatehouse.  This is one of the bottlenecks in the power canal route that has not been overcome after 43 years of study and structural changes in this upstream route.

 

 

When the agencies and the public were taken on FERC site visits, only one group in three was given a tour of this side of the TF Gatehouse.  At that time, only 4 head gates were open.  The canal appeared a relatively calm place.  When all head gates are open—as the Northfield Project and Cabot are run in peaking modes, or the TF Canal is run at baseload capacity through the day, this region is a boiling-roll of water.  Surface speeds reach nearly 10 mph (as monitored by cyclists on the canal path).  We need to know how this affects velocity and turbulence throughout the water column

 

 

Given recent fish passage increases at Holyoke Dam, it is feasible that building a facility to lift migratory fish out of the CT River and into the TF Canal below Cabot Station could divert as many as 100,000 fish into the canal over a period of a few days.  Recent work by USGS Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center showed American shad spending an average of 25 days in the power canal.  Researchers did not investigate whether this was a signature of fish mortality, spawning, or milling. Nor has the TF canal ever been investigated as spawning habitat—which would have been logical, given those lengths of stopover.  American shad notably do not do well with stress.  Piling up the population in a power canal will likely result in major migratory delays and increased mortality—which needs a full investigation if this path remains an option.

 

This should be a two-year effort, to control for differences in flow years, fish tagging and handling, and to assure that full acoustic coverage is gained through proper array deployment.

 

American shad have not been able to negotiate this region of high turbulence since this canal route was chosen for them in 1980.  At Holyoke, as well as at Vernon Dam, fish follow attraction water that leads them directly upstream to the dams.  Rates of passage at both are within the acceptable range of 40-60% that the agencies have set as targets.  When the Connecticut River above Cabot Station—aka, the Bypass Reach, was allowed to be de-watered in deference to this power canal route, shad and herring were expected to locate and negotiate a series ladders, turns, turbines, and turbulence at a half dozen canal sites in order to reach upriver spawning areas.  It’s a migratory knot; created by humans.

 

The Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration effort risks repeating four new decades of failure if it again ignores logic.  The TF Power Canal is in need of a full hydraulic study.

 

Hydraulic modeling must be done here in order to avoid another migratory fisheries restoration disaster at Turners Falls.  Northern Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire have yet to see their guaranteed shares of the targeted shad and herring runs, nor has the program achieved anything near its stated goals:  “The intent of this program is to provide the public with high quality sport fishing opportunities in a highly urbanized area as well as to provide for the long term needs of the population for food,” as stated in the New England Cooperative Fisheries Statement of Intent in 1967.

 

Existing Information and Need for Additional Information (18 CFR § 5.11(d)(3))

 

Please ADD to Existing Information: Life history and behaviour of Connecticut River shortnose and other sturgeons, 2012, Kynard et al, World Sturgeon Conservation Society publications, ISBN: 978-3-8448-2801-6.  Available through the North American Sturgeon and Paddlefish Society at: www.nasps-sturgeon.org/#!publications , or directly from Dr. Kynard at: kynard@eco.umass.edu.  Chapter 3-Migrations, Effect of River Regulation documents over a decade of highly relevant studies.

 

 

FirstLight’s Water Level Recorders (River Stage)”The Water Level Recorders deployed by FL in 2010 that supplied “limited data” from the By Pass Reach and below Station 1 should be removed from “existing information” status.  WSEL monitoring in this reach needs to be redone.  Several more monitors at key sites are needed to protect resident and migratory fish, as well as the federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon, which gathers for pre-spawning in the pool immediately below the Rock Dam, and–when flows allow, chooses to spawn there.

 

 

Note *: personal communication from Dr. Boyd Kynard, fish behaviorist and CT River shortnose sturgeon expert:

 

“For 10 years between 1993 and 2007, adult sns were present at Rock Dam for 5 years prior to spawning occurring anywhere ( Rock Dam or Cabot Station). During the 5 years they were present, the mean number of adults present was 10.4 (range, 3-25). Thus, many adults moved to the Rock Dam spawning site before any spawning occurred at Cabot Station suggesting they preferred to spawn at Rock Dam.” (Refer to chapters 1 & 3, Life history and behaviour of Connecticut River shortnose and other sturgeons, 2012, Kynard et al, World Sturgeon Conservation Society publications, ISBN: 978-3-8448-2801-6.  Available through the North American Sturgeon and Paddlefish Society at: www.nasps-sturgeon.org/#!publications , or directly from Dr. Kynard at: kynard@eco.umass.edu

 

 

Need for Additional Information (3-53):  Where, exactly, did FL locate WSEL monitors in the By Pass Reach?  How do they intend to guard against “vandalism” ruining further data collections?

 

Add to information list for specific information on this reach: Life history and behaviour of Connecticut River shortnose and other sturgeons, 2012, Kynard et al, World Sturgeon Conservation Society, publications, ISBN: 978-3-8448-2801-6.

 

Additional WSEL monitors needed. In order to protect pre-spawning and spawning of shortnose sturgeon in this reach of river additional WSEL monitors should also be placed at: 1. In the pool immediately below Rock Dam, 2. on the west side of the river, in the main stem channel, upstream of Rawson Island which is adjacent to, and just west of the Rock Dam.  That Rock Dam ledge continues through the island and reemerges as part of the thalweg near the river’s west bank.

 

3.3.1 Conduct Instream Flow Habitat Assessments in the Bypass Reach and below Cabot Station 

 

If migratory fish are again to be diverted into the TF Power Canal via a new lift in the river near Cabot outflows (proposed), special consideration needs to be made when considering siting the lift facility.

 

Federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon will likely enter the lift, and there exists the risk of putting them into the power canal where there is potential for turbine mortality.

 

Migratory delay: another reason for special care in considering diversion is migratory delay for American shad and blueback herring at this site.  If a lift gets built at Cabot, there will be a need for full-time monitoring personnel in order not to risk sending SNS into the canal.  Just as at Holyoke, with Atlantic salmon monitoring, the lift would then have to shut down—sometimes for weeks at a time, due to turbidity and the risk of NOT identifying a migrant salmon(or in this case, a federally endangered SNS).  This type of migratory delay would not likely be acceptable to the agencies, or FL (see FL’s added text about “without delay” under 3.3.19 : “Evaluate the Use of an Ultrasound Array to Facilitate Upstream Movement to Turners Falls Dam by Avoiding Cabot Station Tailrace.”

 

 

Existing Information and Need for Additional Information (18 CFR § 5.11(d)(3))

 

The IFIM Study needs to be conducted with increased WSEL monitors given FL’s stated intent to potentially increase generation and flow at the Northfield Project, Station 1, and Cabot Station.

 

Several more monitors at key sites are needed to protect resident and migratory fish, as well as the federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon, which gathers for pre-spawning in the pool immediately below the Rock Dam, and–when flows allow, chooses to spawn there.

 

Note *: personal communication from Dr. Boyd Kynard, fish behaviorist and CT River shortnose sturgeon expert:

 

“For 10 years between 1993 and 2007, adult sns were present at Rock Dam for 5 years prior to spawning occurring anywhere ( Rock Dam or Cabot Station). During the 5 years they were present, the mean number of adults present was 10.4 (range, 3-25). Thus, many adults moved to the Rock Dam spawning site before any spawning occurred at Cabot Station suggesting they preferred to spawn at Rock Dam.” (Refer to chapters 1 & 3, Life history and behaviour of Connecticut River shortnose and other sturgeons, 2012, Kynard et al, World Sturgeon Conservation Society publications, ISBN: 978-3-8448-2801-6.  Available through the North American Sturgeon and Paddlefish Society at: www.nasps-sturgeon.org/#!publications , or directly from Dr. Kynard at: kynard@eco.umass.edu

 

 

Need for Additional Information (3-53):  Where, exactly, did FL locate WSEL monitors in the By Pass Reach?  How do they intend to guard against “vandalism” ruining further data collections?

 

Information list for specific information on this reach, ADD: Life history and behaviour of Connecticut River shortnose and other sturgeons, 2012, Kynard et al, World Sturgeon Conservation Society, publications, ISBN: 978-3-8448-2801-6.  Available through the North American Sturgeon and Paddlefish Society at: www.nasps-sturgeon.org/#!publications , or directly from Dr. Kynard at: kynard@eco.umass.edu

 

Additional WSEL monitors needed to capture fuller By Pass flows profile. In order to protect pre-spawning and spawning of shortnose sturgeon in this reach of river additional WSEL monitors should also be placed at: 1. In the pool immediately below Rock Dam, 2. on the west side of the river, in the main stem channel, upstream of Rawson Island which is adjacent to, and just west of the Rock Dam.  That Rock Dam ledge continues through the island and reemerges as part of the thalweg near the river’s west bank.

 

Table 3.3.1-1: Target Species and Life Stages Proposed for the IFIM Study Reaches.

 

Under Reach 1 & 2: blueback herring: add “spawning”—as New England Cooperative Fisheries Research Studies document BBH spawning in this reach, at the mouth of the Fall River.

 

 

Under Reach 1 & 2: shortnose sturgeon: add “pre-spawning.”

 

Note *: personal communication from Dr. Boyd Kynard, fish behaviorist and CT River shortnose sturgeon expert:

 

“For 10 years between 1993 and 2007, adult sns were present at Rock Dam for 5 years prior to spawning occurring anywhere ( Rock Dam or Cabot Station). During the 5 years they were present, the mean number of adults present was 10.4 (range, 3-25). Thus, many adults moved to the Rock Dam spawning site before any spawning occurred at Cabot Station suggesting they preferred to spawn at Rock Dam.”

 

 

3.3.2 Evaluate Upstream and Downstream Passage of Adult American Shad

 

Study Goals and Objectives (18 CFR § 5.11(d)(1))

 

“The goal of this study is to identify the effects of the Turners Falls and Northfield Mountain Projects on adult shad migration. The study objectives are to:”

 

 

Add: “Determine route selection, behavior and migratory delays of upstream migrating American shad through the entire Turners Falls Power Canal.”

 

Add to “Describe the effectiveness of the gatehouse entrances;” …

 

 

ADD IN: “and describe the behavior of migratory American in the Turners Falls Power Canal within 500 feet of the gatehouse entrances.”

 

ADD IN: “Evaluate attraction for shad reaching the dam spillway under a range of spill conditions.” 

Note:  Since a lift is being considered at this site, evaluating spillway attraction is most important.

 

 

 “Evaluate attraction, entrance efficiency and internal efficiency of the spillway ladder for shad reaching the dam spillway, under a range of spill conditions;”  see immediately below.

 

Footnote 35 “This may be achieved with existing information; FirstLight is awaiting data from the USGS Conte Laboratory.”

 

 

NOTE: USGS has done 6 years (2008 – present) of study and data collection at Spillway and Gate House.  All of it remains “preliminary”—hence never finalized, or peer-reviewed.  Only “finalized” study data and findings should be included in FERC study plan design, and made available to all stakeholders for review.  All studies are partially FirstLight funded.

 

The Need for Additional Information

 

Under  Task 1: “Review existing information:”

Only finalized USGS study information should be considered.

Task 2: Develop Study Design:

As per FERC request, a radio and PIT tag study of the entire Turners Falls Power Canal should be included in this study.

 

 

Task 3: Evaluation of Route Selection and Delay

 

             Under: Radio Telemetry Tracking: Add in:

 

“Tagged fish will be tracked throughout the Turners Falls Power Canal during bothupstream and downstream migration with fixed antennae and mobile tracking; usingPIT tags in addition to radio telemetry tags.”

 

“Additional tagged individuals may need to be released farther upstream (Turners Falls power canal, * (ADD IN: “top of Cabot Station Ladder,”) upstream of Turners Falls Dam), to ensure that enough tagged individuals encounter project dams on both upstream and downstream migrations, that these individuals are exposed to a sufficient range of turbine and operational conditions to test for project effects, and to provide adequate samples sizes in order to address the objectives.”

 

Under: Video Monitoring

 

 

Video monitoring at the Spillway Ladder is insufficient.

 

Note: Video monitoring is insufficient in determining the number of fish attracted to the spillway.  It will only register fish that can FIND the Spillway Ladder Entrance.  This in confounded by a range of competing flows, water levels present in the By Pass, and spill from the dam.  A full range of telemetry tracking needs to be employed at the TF Spillway—not simply at the Spillway Ladder and SL Entrance.

 

Task 4: Evaluation of Mortality

 

Note: Preliminary USGS TF Canal studies have suggested uninvestigated data indicating mortality within the Turner Falls Power Canal.  Mortality tagged fish and data should be collected throughout the entire TF Power Canal, to correct for overall mortality.

 

 

The number of fish suggested to be fitted with mortality tags is insufficient in all these studies, and should be increased by a factor of two.

 

Table 3.3.2-1: Proposed locations and types of monitoring and telemetry equipment proposed for the upstream and downstream passage of adult shad study.

 

 

ADD in: (to identify migration routes and delays):

 

After “Cabot Ladder”, add new location: Eleventh Street Canal Bridge: PIT Tag Reader

 

Before “Rawson Island”, add new location: TF Power Canal, 400 feet downstream of Gate House.  PIT Tag Reader and Lotek SRX.

 

 

Also before “Rawson Island”, add new location: “Rock Dam Pool, immediately downstream of Rock Dam.”  Lotek SRX.

 

 

After “Turners Falls Spillway Ladder,” add: Turners Falls Spillway, Montague Dam.  Lotek SRX;  followed by a new location, add in: Turners Falls Spillway, Gill Dam.  Lotek SRX.

 

QUESTION: What is the exact location considered for “Below Turners Falls Dam” ?

 

 

3.3.3 Evaluate Downstream Passage of Juvenile American Shad

 

Task 3: Turbine Survival

 

Evaluations should be done for all turbines, with all turbines operating, at both Cabot and Station 1, to capture the broadest range of conditions at these sites.

 

 

3.3.5  Evaluate Downstream Passage of American Eel

 

Level of Effort and Cost (18 CFR § 5.11(d)(6))

 

Study ticket price is too expensive.

 

 

“The estimated cost for this study is approximately between $350,000 and $450,000.”

 

Note: Costs of this American Eel Study are prohibitive, particularly since there is no benchmark data on the ecosystem importance of eels above Mile 122, TF Dam.

 

This rivals the costs of all studies supported to assess migration and mortality of American shad, a restoration target species to Vermont and New Hampshire for 46 years.

 

 

 A significant proportion of that money could best be used to increase the scope of study: 3.3.2, and 3.3.7: Evaluate Upstream and Downstream Passage of Adult American Shad; and 3.3.7 Fish Entrainment and Turbine Passage Mortality Study.  These could then include a full study of the Turners Falls Power Canal–and increasing the number of mortality-tagged fish.

 

Cost effectively, a literature survey, and results from Holyoke Dam studies and Cabot data collection should suffice to gauge survival of American eel at Turners Falls/Cabot/Northfield.  A portion of the funding could be used to construct an eel-way at TF Dam—a relatively inexpensive structure.

 

3.3.6 Impact of Project Operations on Shad Spawning, Spawning Habitat and Egg Deposition in the Area of the Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls Projects

 

 

Under: Existing Information and Need for Additional Information (18 CFR § 5.11(d)(3))

 

Information as American spawning and spawning habitat is missing for the pool where shortnose sturgeon spawn, the Rock Dam Pool, immediately downstream of that notched ledge in the river.

 

Task 2: Examination of Known Spawning Areas Downstream of Turners Falls Dam

 

Note: The Turners Falls Power Canal needs to be investigated as a spawning location for American shad.  USGS studies have registered migratory shad remaining in the TF Canal for and average of 25 days.  Adult shad, which do not feed during spawning migration, must complete their salt-to-river-to salt spawning runs within 44 days in order to survive.  A critical need is to know whether these fish are spawning in the TF Power Canal, milling in the canal, or whether they have expired.

 

3.3.7 Fish Entrainment and Turbine Passage Mortality Study

 

Increase the number of mortality-tagged fish; run tests for all turbines at Station 1 and Cabot, with all turbines operating.

 

3.3.8 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling in the Vicinity of the Fishway Entrances and Powerhouse Forebays

 

Existing Information and Need for Additional Information (18 CFR § 5.11(d)(3))

 

 

Note: Three-dimensional CFD Modeling needs to extend 500 feet downstream of the Gate House in the Turner Falls Power Canal to capture the influence of the 14 head gates at the dam on migratory fish behavior and delay.

 

3.3.19 Evaluate the Use of an Ultrasound Array to Facilitate Upstream Movement to Turners Falls Dam by Avoiding Cabot Station Tailrace  

 

 

General Description of Proposed Study

 

FirstLight’s added language: “This study will be conducted in 2015 pending the results of Study No 3.3.1 and Study No. 3.3.2, which include analysis of historic fish passage data.”

 

Note: This study should be conducted for two seasons, the same time span accorded to American eel. 

 

Historic fish passage data likely has only minimal importance, as early spring freshet flows over the TF Spillway generally out-compete Cabot Station flows and send fish treading water at the base of TF dam—often for weeks.  Those freshet flows at the dam typically overwhelm any flow from the Spillway Ladder, and the shad essentially run down their engines treading water until the freshet subsides.  At that point, flows over the Spillway are allowed to be cut to 400 cfs, which sends the shad downstream to fight their way into the spill of the canal system. For this reason, historic data has limited value as the quantified presence of shad at the base of TF Dam is missing, and data on the effectiveness of Spillway attraction flow does not exist.

 

Resource Management Goals of Agencies/Tribes with Jurisdiction over Resource (18 CFR § 5.11(d)(2)) 

 

“• American shad must be able to locate and enter the passage facility with little effort and without stress.”

 

“• Where appropriate, improve upstream fish passage effectiveness through operational or structural modifications at impediments to migration.”

 

 

“• Fish that have ascended the passage facility should be guided/routed to an appropriate area so that they can continue upstream migration, and avoid being swept back downstream below the obstruction.”

 

Note: This study should not be contingent on results of other studies, and should be conducted for two seasons. 

1.    Its effectiveness at another Connecticut River bottleneck has been tested.

 

2.    It addresses the need to avoid migratory delay and failure for two key species that have topped the CT River fisheries restoration since 1967: American shad and blueback herring.

 

3.    It keeps the fish migrating in the Connecticut River.

 

4.    If it proves effective, it would simplify fish passage mechanisms and cut by millions of dollars the cost required for passing TF Dam.  A single set of lifts at the dam would pass fish, as it has at Holyoke for decades.

 

5.    It would avoid the expense and pitfalls of requiring fish to negotiate two mechanisms at Cabot Station, another out of the canal, and a final grid through Gate House. 

 

6.    It presents the opportunity to avoid the stress required of migratory fish when they are driven into the TF Power Canal, then must find their way through turbulence and fight a path through several more untried, built mechanisms.

 

7.    USGS studies have found the average passage time through the TF Canal is 25 days; whereas transit times in the actual river—from Holyoke to TF Dam, or from TF Dam to Vernon Dam, are generally accomplished in a matter of 2 – 3 days.

 

8.    This would avoid the problem of shortnose sturgeon being picked up in a lift at Cabot Station, which would be a cause for further migratory delay as lifts would have to stop to retrieve fish—and also might have to be shut for days during times of high turbidity. 

Existing Information and Need for Additional Information (18 CFR § 5.11(d)(3)) 

Information from Proposed Project Changes, Flow, Hydraulics, Habitat, and Telemetry studies: 2.2.1; 2.3.1; 3.2.2; 3.3.1; 3.3.2; should be used to inform the implementation of this study. 

 

FirstLight’s added-in text:

 

“however, simply repelling shad from the Cabot tailrace is not a satisfactory result, for this behavioral barrier to be successful the fish would also have to keep going upstream, without delay, as opposed to dropping down below Cabot.”

 

Note: this caveat does not present a satisfactory argument.  In order to be proven ineffective, delays caused by sonics repelling fish from the Cabot entrance would have to out-compete any delays American shad and blueback herring encounter by being drawn to the Spillway during spring freshet and not find a readable upstream flow or passage at the dam. To this must be added the delay and stress of having river attraction and Spillway flow cut to 400 cfs, thus sending them DOWNSTREAM to fight their way into the TF Power Canal. 

Question: Should FL be deciding what constitutes delay?  Shouldn’t American shad dropping back two miles downstream from the TF Spillway to Cabot Station be considered an “unsatisfactory result”? 

 

Methodology (18 CFR § 5.11(b)(1), (d)(5)-(6))

 

Note: Ensonification coverage may need to be deployed far enough out into the main stem so as to lead fish out to the thalweg/main flows on the west side of Rawson Island.  Simply steering fish out of the Cabot entrance, but then only allowing them the choice of the minimal flows coming down through Rock Dam at the time paltry 400 cfs release would likely keep the fish milling and confused below Station # 1. 

Study Schedule (18 CFR § 5.11(b)(2) and (c))

 

FirstLight’s Added text: “ 

“If performed, the study is anticipated to conclude by mid-July 2015.”

 

Note: This should not be a contingent study. 

                                                End of Formal Comments 

Thank you for this opportunity to participate in improving license requirements and protecting the Connecticut River ecosystem for future generations. 

Sincerely,
Karl Meyer, M.S.

On the Hook: on WHMP, Tuesday, May 1st, 6:30 & 8:00 a.m.

Posted by on 29 Apr 2012 | Tagged as: American shad, blueback herring, Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, endangerd shortnose sturgeon, federal trust fish, federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon, shortnose sturgeon, Turners Falls power canal, Vernon Dam Fishway

On Tuesday morning, May 1st,  at 6:30 a.m., I  join Morning Show Host Bob Flaherty on WHMP Radio in Northampton for a short segment best described as “On the Hook,” a dam-by-dam, power plant-by-power plant assessment of the regulations and laws being broken and skirted that continue the institutionalized failure of the 45 year migratory fish restoration  on the Connecticut from Holyoke, MA to Vernon, VT.  The segment repeats at 8:00 a.m.

Get a snapshot of who’s doing what, where–and why misdirected science continues to stress sending “federal trust” American shad and blueback herring into a black hole at the Turners Falls power canal while no one is talking about the Connecticut’s federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon.  Should be of interest to anglers, teachers, artists and anyone concerned with the Connecticut River ecosystem.

Tune in if you can at: http://www.whmp.com  Locally@ 1400, or 1240 AM.

Its about the River, AND the Fish…

Posted by on 19 Jan 2012 | Tagged as: American shad, Atlantic salmon, Bellows Falls Fishway, blueback herring, Connecticut River, Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission, Connecticut River ecosystem, Conte, CRASC, Dead Reach, ecosystem, federal trust fish, FirstLight, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Reservoir, river steward, salmon, Salmon eggs, salmon hatchery, sea lamprey, shad, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, US Geological Service’s Silvio O. Conte Anadromous Fish Lab, Vermont, Vernon Dam Fishway, Walpole

© Copyright 2012 by Karl Meyer   All Rights Reserved

The following Opinion piece appeared in publications and media sites in CT, MA, VT, and NH.  It is a reply to writing in support of the status quo on the Connecticut River fisheries restoration, emphasizing extinct salmon.  The writer, Mr. Deen, is a river steward, flyfishing guide, and VT representative.  This piece appeared mainly in a shorter, Letter to the Editor format.  Here it appears in an expanded OpEd, this version from The Vermont Digger.  Find them at www.vtdigger.org. 

                        It’s about the river, AND the fish…

The Connecticut River Watershed Council’s Vermont River Steward David Dean asks the public not to judge the 45 year-old Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission’s fisheries restoration by numbers of returning fish, while 74 salmon reached the CT’s first dam at Holyoke, MA in 2011.  As someone advocating rededicating funds away from an extinct salmon strain, I found the piece well-intentioned but short on fact.

After decades and hundreds of millions spent on the science, genetics, and hatcheries dedicated to a centuries-extinct, cold-water salmon on the southern-most river it ever briefly colonized, the public has a right to a return on investment in this time of demonstrated climate warming.  I agree that that return should be an improving river ecosystem.  Useless dams should be eliminated; hydro operations damaging rivers and skirting regulations protecting fish should be prosecuted.

But Mr. Deen cites as salmon-program benefits “growing populations of other anadromous fish,” specifically shad and lamprey.  Science is, and should be, about measurable results.  Yet in results coming back from a hatchery program dedicated to elite angling, salmon represented less than three-hundredths of 1% of this year’s fish returns, while devouring 90% of funding for all migrants.  As to the 244,000 American shad and 19,000 sea lamprey he touted as reaching Holyoke–that’s a 66% plunge from the 720,000 shad counted there two decades back; and 19,000 lamprey?—only 4 years have seen lower numbers since tallies began.  Personally, I’d note 138 blueback herring–a might shy of the 410,000 Holyoke counted in 1992.

It is time for an ecosystem restoration.  Turn this upside-down species pyramid back on its base–rededicate funds to bedrock species of this ecosystem.  River groups could contribute greatly by opening public discussion about desperate river conditions just below Turners Falls, the second dam on the CT.  Migratory fish there are funneled into an ecosystem death trap: Turners Falls power canal.  Meanwhile the adjacent Connecticut is strangled in its own bed by pummeling and parching flows–deeply impacted by pumping operations at Northfield Mountain just upstream.

Today, the only shad regularly reaching VT/NH waters are a few hundred sometimes trucked there from Holyoke.  However, in 2010 Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station choked on its own silt.  Its mile-long intake tunnel and turbines became massively clogged.  From May 1st to November, it did not add a single watt of energy to the grid.  Few noticed.  There was no energy interruption—even while Vermont Yankee was down for refueling in early May.

Yet something amazing happened: shad numbers passing Turners Falls skyrocketed over 600% to levels not seen in 15 years.  Without Northfield pumping–and with river levels kept steady and artificially high at TF dam as FirstLight Power tried to conceal a 65,000 ton mountain of silt it was dumping in the river, the miserable conditions in the riverbed below the dam actually improved.  With May and June rains arriving, artificially brimming river levels behind the dam meant more steady flows were released directly downstream to the oft-parched and pummeled “dead reach” of river below the falls.  Shad got their ancient migration route back—swimming upriver, rather than being deflected into the punishing currents and turbines of the Turners Falls power canal.

Even with suspect tallies and FirstLight’s counting equipment inoperable for parts of 37 days, 16,768 shad were counted passing toward VT–the most since 1995.  Vermont salmon expert Jay McMenemy expressed surprise when all eight free-swimming salmon also used the ancient riverbed to shoot directly upstream to the ladder at the dam.  Since 1967 over 11 million shad have passed Holyoke.  All but a whisper of them ever made it to the Green Mountain State, while they once spawned to Bellows Falls and Walpole, NH.  Ironically, federal studies show 17,000 shad is a shadow of the run that should be passing: at least half of all shad passing Holyoke eventually attempt to pass Turners Falls–95% get deflected into the meat-grinder of currents and turbines of the Turners Falls power canal, never to emerge.

The main reason for no Vermont fish runs: no regulated flows in the riverbed; no easy-access fish lift built upstream at TF dam.   The ecosystem dies in the 2 miles of river directly below Turners Falls—due in large part to floodgate manipulations to accommodating Northfield’s pumping.  There is no working fish passage at Turners Falls.  It is legally required and should have been in place over a decade back.

Northfield Mountain is a reserve energy source that can produce a large amount of energy, 1,000 megawatts, in a very short time.  But it can only run for 10 hours, and then its reservoir is depleted.  It is dead in the water.  Owners must then go out on the market and buy electricity to divert the Connecticut’s flows uphill to its 5.6 billion gallon reservoir again.  Then, they sell our river back to us as expensive energy.  Northfield’s efficiency is just 67%.  Add in its profound river impacts and you have to question: Why is no one talking publicly about this ecosystem-killing elephant in the room?

Karl Meyer is an environmental journalist and award-winning non-fiction children’s author who writes frequently about Connecticut River issues from along its shores at Greenfield, MA.

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