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CONNECTICUT RIVER: maybe not left for DEAD after all

Posted by on 04 May 2021 | Tagged as: American shad, Anadromous Fish Conservation Act, Andrew Fisk, Connecticut River, Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission, Connecticut River Watershed Council, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, CRC, Daniel McKiernan: Director MA Division of Marine Fisheries, Delaware LLC, Eversource, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, FERC, FirstLight, Julie Crocker, Kathleen Theoharides, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Martin Suuberg, Martin Suuberg: Commissioner MA Department of Environmental Protection, Massachusetts DEP, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, P-2485, Ron Amidon: Commissioner MA Dept. of Fish and Game, Source to Sea Cleanup, State of Delaware, The Greenfield Recorder, Traprock Center for Peace and Justice, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Wendi Weber

CONNECTICUT RIVER: maybe not left for DEAD after all

Following the Great Earth Week Walk for River Survival to the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project on April 24th, it’s been inspiring to see people publicly raising their voices to pull the grim, daily carnage of that power-hungry machine out from the shadows. One of particular insight was written by Susan Olmsted and appeared in The Recorder on April 30:
https://www.recorder.com/my-turn-olmsted-NorthfieldHydroStation-40211638 . Later, Ms. Olmsted relayed those same points into the public record of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s relicensing comments for the Northfield docket: FERC P-2485. Those are the routes to raising the public profile of our endlessly crippled River—its fate all but buried under confidentiality agreements and generations of inaction by the responsible agencies and so-called protectors. They all continue to lay low in a process that will decide our river’s ultimate viability for decades.


At the NMPS Intake. Photo Copyright © 2021 by James Smethurst

I again must thank the Traprock Center for Peace and Justice and Anna Gyorgy for organizing the event. Having written about this broken river for decades, and now having served on the Fish and Aquatics Study Team in this endless FERC process since 2012, it was an honor to speak up for the river with a caring and determined crowd in attendance. As I’ve noted to several people, last October I witnessed MA Energy Secretary Kathleen Theoharides and Watershed Council/Conservancy Director Andy Fisk launch a PR canoe tour for elected officials–directly upstream of the killer suction pipes of Northfield. In grim, self-serving fashion neither stepped up to the TV cameras or spoke with attendant reporters to proclaim, “This thing is our river’s greatest killer, it should be closed; this company, FirstLight, wholly re-registered these holdings out of state into Delaware as tax shelters two years back—they have no business here.” Shame on them both.

Watershed Council/CRC Director Andy Fisk, in vest, Chairs the Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission 12/10/2018

BTW, we spoke at some depth on the Walk about the NU/Eversource building-of, and current massive connections to NMPS–and also the long-standing financial and Source to Sea greenwashing links between the Watershed Council/Conservancy and Eversource? Well, here’s a little late-breaking Eversource monopoly news: https://www.eenews.net/stories/1063731537

Personally, I would feel I’d failed our Great River, this ecosystem and coming generations had I never stood in front of this killer to bear witness to the truth. NMPS is a killer, and no configuration that leaves its grim sucking mouth open for ANY part of the year will retrieve it from being the most lethal machine ever deployed on the Connecticut. After so many years I am grateful that I had that opportunity–to stand up with other people and keep faith with our river–and link with those who will depend on its living waters in the future.


Revival Walk Crowd April 24, 2021 Photo Copyright © 2021 by David Keith

I don’t think a single person in attendance that day believes the snake-oil logic for continuing NMPS: that wasting massive amounts of energy to actually pull a river backward for miles–sucking 100s of millions of fish to their deaths as it wrenches its deadened water up a mountain, will ever be any kind energy “clean” or “green” solution on a heating-up planet whose ecosystems are unraveling. FirstLight’s will merely continue the laying-waste to our long-crippled river. It has nourished life here for millennia; they want to trade that in for their few hours of peak-priced energy.


MA Secretary of Energy & Environmental Affairs Kathleen Theoharides talks to the media–just yards away from Northfield’s deadly intake on a fluff PR tour on the river, October 2020. Photo Copyright © 2021 by Karl Meyer

It’s important to remember that this machine’s emplacement ran counter to one of the most significant landmark environmental decisions ever from the US Supreme Court, centered right here on the Connecticut River in 1872. In Holyoke Company v. Lyman the Court decided private operators of dams and facilities on the Connecticut—and thence, for all rivers, must provide safe upstream and downstream passage for migratory fish. Nearly 150 years later, this machine continues crushing millions of migratory fish—among them federal trust American shad, blueback herring and American eels. That killing occurs for eggs, larvae, juveniles and adult fish across the many months of their full migratory life cycles.

With the presence of a real watchdog, NMPS’s illegal presence never would have arisen here. There were decades to have sued for its shutdown. Today, neither its operation–nor FirstLight’s thin mitigation proposal to put up a partial, temporary net across its mouth annually that might spare some adult shad and eels from its suction just two months out of their killing year, even remotely passes the smell test for legal operation in a US Fish & Wildlife Refuge.

Raising public voices and flushing the buried dealings in this race-to-the-bottom FERC relicensing process is now the key to having some real impact in saving the Connecticut.

This Great River still feeds bodies and souls. It’s been struggling for well over half a century without an entity taking on the necessary mandate to “enforce” and take on the employ of a day-to-day legal team worthy of facing down predator corporations. This is an ecosystem destined to failure if citizens stay on the sidelines. But people are getting it; and standing up. Maybe this critical life-line of a river can be revived for the coming half century, to again nourish those of the future.

WORTH NOTING: Massachusetts and federal agency officials responsible for securing a living Connecticut River for your great, great, grand kids–upstream and down, through to Vermont and New Hampshire:

Kathleen Theoharides: Sec. of MA Energy & Environmental Affairs
Martin Suuberg: Commissioner MA Department of Environmental Protection
Ron Amidon: Commissioner MA Dept. of Fish & Game
Daniel McKiernan: Director MA Division of Marine Fisheries
Wendi Weber: Director Region 5, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Julie Crocker: Branch Chief, Endangered Fish Recovery unit, NOAA, Gloucester MA (endangered CT River shortnose sturgeon habitat)

GREAT CONNECTICUT RIVER SURVIVAL WALK DRAWS BIG MULTI-STATE CROWD

Posted by on 27 Apr 2021 | Tagged as: 1872, American shad, Bellows Falls VT, Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, Connecticut River Refuge, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, Daniel McKiernan, Delaware LLC, Eversource, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, FERC, FERC license, FirstLight, Haddam nuclear plant, Holyoke Dam, ISO New England, Julie Crocker, Kathleen Theoharides, Landmark Supreme Court Decision 1872, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Martin Suuberg, Martin Suuberg:, Massachusetts DEP, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, Millstone 1, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, net-loss power, NMFS, NOAA, Northeast Utilities, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, NU/WMECO, P-2485, PSP Investments, Public Sector Pension Investments, river cleanup, Riverkeeper, salmon, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Source to Sea Cleanup, State of Delaware, Treasury Board of Canada, Uncategorized, United States Supremed Court, US Fish & Wildlife Service, Vermont, Vermont Yankee

GREAT CONNECTICUT RIVER SURVIVAL WALK DRAWS BIG MULTI-STATE CROWD

Claire Chang of the Solar Store of Greenfield speaks to attendees. Note: see http://solarisworking.org/. Photo Copyright © 2021 by James Smethurst. All Right Reserved

Northfield MA. The biggest story on the 410-mile long Connecticut River this Earth Week did not center on yet another promo video or soft news story about people doing trash cleanups. It took place on Saturday, April 24th, when more than 70 people of all ages–from as far as Springfield, South Hadley and Northampton MA–all the way upstream to Putney VT, turned out for a 3-mile river walk to learn about the 50 years of devastation that the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station has wrought on their four-state ecosystem.

THE DAY’S SPEAKERS BEARING WITNESS

Attendees heard from host, Traprock Center for Peace and Justice’s Anna Gyorgy, about the long, deep connection of this river killing to nearly 50 years of nuclear power excess and damages (www.traprock.org). They heard from Claire Chang of the Solar Store of Greenfield about alternative energy, solar installation and bulk storage alternatives to destroying whole ecosystems. And, I spoke at length about the long, grim and deadly history that has brought us to a crossroads for a living future for the Connecticut River vs. this massively violent machine.

WHERE THE RUBBER NEVER MET THE ROAD

What people heard about was that shutting up NMPS’s killer intake pipes is the only river cleanup that matters. Doing just that would have saved a now-crippled ecosystem–had there been an actual watchdog organization on the Connecticut in 1972–or again, when Vermont Yankee’s license expired in 2012. Those are the cleanups that would have spared an entire ecosystem, decade-upon-decade of this hide-in-plain-sight sucking wound.

THE LEGACY OF FAILURES

They learned the Commonwealth Massachusetts has endlessly failed this ecosystem, facilitating its exploitation to the detriment of 3 other New England states by not protecting it. And, that the federal and state fish agencies have failed it as well by first chasing, then never relinquishing, their long-failed salmon experiment, for a fish not seen here since 1809. And also that the NGO claiming guardianship here since 1952, massively failed New England’s River–never stepping up to challenge and prosecute the devastation of the power companies, nor calling out or suing government agencies charged to protect it under state and federal law.

LANDMARK SUPREME COURT DECISION 1872: HOLYOKE CO. v. LYMAN

Living rivers do not flow backwards. People walked a mile and a half to the intake pipes of a deadly machine that has laid waste to billions upon billions of fish across a half century—literally suctioning them to death while pulling miles of river current into reverse. Folks learned that building of this net-power-loss, river-gorging appliance and the deadly impacts it created on migrating fish, particularly American shad—actually flew in the face of the 1872 landmark Supreme Court decision in Holyoke Company v. Lyman, a full century before NMPS was built. Given that law, it had no right to exist here at all.</strong>

Photo Copyright © 2021 by Robert Flaherty All Rights Reserved.

What did that landmark decision require of dam system owners and private companies operating on the Connecticut–and on all rivers of the United States a century and a half ago? It said all must provide safe fish passage, upstream and down of their facilities, as “public rights.” Visitors also learned that the Canadian owners of this 365-day-a-year slicing machine want only to provide a flimsy net, part way across its killer mouth, for just over two months out of the year. That will largely leave the eggs, larvae and juveniles of most species—including migrants, in full peril. Names of agency leaders charged with saving the river for our grandkids were supplied.

NOTE:text below derives from a The GREAT RIVER WALK handout

NO NEW LICENSE TO KILL: THE NORTHFIELD MOUNTAIN PUMPED STORAGE STATION: A HALF CENTURY OF WASTE, DEATH AND ECOSYSTEM DESTRUCTION.</strong> Notes from Karl Meyer, FERC relicensing Stakeholder and Intervener since 2012

To COMMENT: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Project License P-2485 (www.ferc.gov E-comments) Include your name, address, project # P-2485 and a brief. specific remedy for FERC to apply.

Owner:venture-capital firm PSP Investments, a Canadian Crown Corporation.
Operating in MA as: FirstLight Power Resources.
Current tax sheltering llc registration since 2018 out of MA & New England: in Dover, Delaware

NMPS is an energy consumer. It has never produced a single watt of virgin electricity. Every day this machine consumes huge pulses of electricity from the power grid to suck massive gulps from the Connecticut backward and uphill for hours on end at a rate of up to 15,000 cubic feet per second(cfs). That sucking pulls the Connecticut backward at times for over 3 miles downstream. SOURCE: FERC P-2485 relicensing Study 3.3.9 appendices.

This is not a hydropower plant; it is an energy wasting machine operating exactly like an electric toilet. It runs on imported electricity, profiting on the buy-low/re-sell high model.

RUNNING BACKWARD FOR DECADES

**VIEW Federal Power Commission document with link HERE FPC 1974 flow reversals

That 15,000 cfs is the equivalent of 60, seven-bedroom mansions being swallowed each minute, for hours on end—with everything from tiny fish eggs to full sized American eels obliterated by its turbines. Twenty-four species are subject to that suction. For shad alone it’s estimated that over 2 million juveniles and 10 million eggs and larvae die here annually. That’s just one species. How many billions of fish die annually, across all species—and now across 49 years? A fixed, monitored, year-round barrier screen, fully across its mouth was required.

NMPS then later sends that deadened water back down in peak-priced pulses for a few hours in the morning and afternoon at up to 20,000 cfs. A living river goes in, all that comes out is dead. The Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station does its killing in the heart of the Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National FISH & Wildlife Refuge. This Canadian company is operating in the heart of a four-state ECOSYSTEM, crippling and pulling it apart daily. It should be relegated to rare emergency use.

The scheme to pair this eviscerating machine with future ocean wind is a nightmare—fully a Greek tragedy. Ocean wind sent to kill its river babies. Future generations require a living river.

Energy should be consumed close to where it is produced. That is where the load is. In New England that load is at the coast. Large-scale compressed air plants can be built at New Bedford, Everett, Boston, Somerset and Middltown RI for large-scale wind energy storage. If FERC allows massive LNG export farms to be built at the coast, it can require space for “local” energy storage—right near all those current “natural” gas tank farms of today.Storage needs to be adjacent to those metro cities where it is consumed. That battery storage can be constructed is a given.

In the age of Climate disruption the goal of an electricity network–one safe from mass outages due to cyber attacks and wind and flood events–disrupting the current corporate mega-grid built for huge area energy relays, should be micro-grids and distributed generation.

That decreases vulnerability and will encourage CONSERVATION—never mentioned by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission or ISO-New England. That is the formula that begins to tackle climate disruption. It is time for Re-Regulation of the power grid. It is time for TRANSPARENCY in the Commonwealth’s energy policy–done behind closed doors with monopoly capital interests running the ISO-NE and NEPOOL table, while excluding even journalists from meetings. This plant squeezes the life out of approximately 1-1/2 billion gallons of Connecticut River water daily—its deadened re-sale power for export—for “load” consumers far from the small towns and cities of this 4 –state ecosystem.

NMPS was built by WMECO/Northeast Utilities(NU) to run off the bloated excess juice of their Vermont Yankee nuclear plant, 15 miles upriver. VY closed forever in 2014. NU today remains massively wired into and out of this facility’s energy resale loop. Today NMPS deadly consumption continues on 50% climate scorching natural gas, 25% nuclear from NH and CT, and 10% actual hydropower from Canada.


The massively fouled Connecticut River and NMPS’s intake tunnels on September 6, 2010. Photo Copyright © 2021 by Karl Meyer

In 2010 NMPS choked on its own effluent, and unexpectedly did not run for over half a year after fouling its massive tunnels with silt and muck. Shut down from May 1st thru early November– after being hit with a “cease and desist” order from the EPA for secretly and illegally dumping that grim effluent directly into the Connecticut for months, in gross violation of the Clean Water Act. Nobody lost power during NMPS’s surprise shutdown for over half a year. That’s despite arguments from grid operator ISO-New England about how necessary its killer, daily re-sale juice is to keeping the lights on. Even during record-breaking summer heat in 2010—when VT Yankee even shut down for refueling, the power grid held together just fine.

What did happen in the 4-state ecosystem—quieted without Northfield’s massive disruption, was that dismal fish passage for American shad just downstream at Turners Falls dam shot up 800% above yearly averages for the previous decade. That was the ugly decade when NMPS began operating differently—after Massachusetts decided to deregulate electricity markets.

NMPS is an ecosystem-crippling, anti-gravity machine, gobbling vast amounts of energy to send a river into reverse and uphill—a buy-low/re-sell-high, cash cow regenerating set-up.

This machine is a crime against nature.

At a time when the planet is dying, you revive ecosystems. This river belongs to our grandchildren and the future, not to greedy foreign investment firms. The corporate concern here is merely the weight of water—live fish and living rivers are nuisance expenses. What would suffice here would be a bunch of pulleys and a giant anvil, like a Roadrunner cartoon. Stop killing the future for our kids.

ORIGINAL OWNER/BUILDER: WMECO/Northeast Utilities—completed in 1972 to run off the excess electricity from its sister plant, Vermont Yankee nuclear station, completed in 1972. NU also had ownership in VT Yankee. Today NU/Northeast Utilities is “doing business as” Eversource. Eversource remains massively wired into and out of NMPS/FirstLight facilities.
Eversource/NU never left us. They just decided to dump their creaky and massively-fined nuclear plants at Millstone and Haddam, to become a bigger, more concealed monopoly. What they did was transfer emphasis to T & D–Transmission and Distribution. They would make their bucks by CONTROLLING THE ENERGY TOLL ROAD. Note the massive new wire structures and the some 18-line-long laundry list of charges on your energy bill for simply for T & D. They have as yet not figured out how to get a kick back for delivering STATIC ELECTRICITY.

Eversource is perennially green-washed through its major-money sponsorship of the Connecticut River Watershed Council/Conservancy’s “Source to Sea Cleanup.” NU/Eversource and the Council (founded 1952) have a long, close, deep-pocketed history. Thus, this green-washed, river-killing apparatus has been quietly-enabled for decades.

A 2021 Brown University study named Eversource as MA’s largest energy spender against clean energy and climate legislation: https://ibes.brown.edu/sites/g/files/dprerj831/files/MA-CSSN-Report-1.20.2021-Corrected-text.pdf

The following companies are now in business as “wholly owned subsidiariesof Eversource:
Connecticut Light & Power, Public Service Company of New Hampshire, PSNH Funding LLC 3, NSTAR Electric Company, Harbor Electric Energy Company, Yankee Energy System, Inc., Yankee Gas Service, NSTAR Gas Company of Mass.(EGMA), Hopkinton LNG Corp., Eversource Gas Transmission II LLC, Eversource Holdco Corporation, Eversource Investment LLC, Eversouce Investment Service Company LLC, Aquarion Company, Aquarion Water Company, Aquarion Water Company of Connecticut, Aquarion Water Company of Massachusetts, Inc., Aquarion Water Capital of Massachusetts, Inc., Aquarion Water Company of New Hampshire, Inc., NU Enterprises, Inc., IP Strategy LLC, Eversource Energy Service Company, The Rocky River Realty Company, Holyoke Water Power Company. Eversource has residual interest in nuclear plants they’ve sold: Seabrook NH and Millstone CT.

Part ownership in: Alps to Berkshires LLC, 50% in transmission line to NY State, 15% ownership in Algonquin Gas Transmission LLC, BSW Holdco LLC, BSW ProjectCo LLC, Bay State Holdco LLC, Bay State Wind LLC, Northeast Wind Energy LLC, North East Offshore, LLC, New England Hydro-Transmission Electric Company, New England Hydro-Transmission Corp. Eversource also has interest and ownership in companies that own and manage decommissioned nuclear plants they once owned, including: Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, 65%, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, 24%, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, 52%. SOURCE: https://www.eversource.com/content/wma/about/about-us/doing-business-with-us/affiliates/list-of-affiliates

RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURING A LIVING RIVER FUTURE FOR OUR KIDS:

Kathleen Theoharides: Sec. of MA Energy & Environmental Affairs
Martin Suuberg: Commissioner MA Department of Environmental Protection
Ron Amidon: Commissioner MA Dept. of Fish & Game
Daniel McKiernan: Director MA Division of Marine Fisheries
Wendi Weber: Director Region 5, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Julie Crocker: Branch Chief, Endangered Fish Recovery unit, NOAA, Gloucester MA

It is time to break up the monopolies, re-regulate energy in Massachusetts for our children’s sake—and:RESTORE the CONNECTICUT RIVER ECOSYSTEM.

Of Book Bans, Journalism and Shortnose Stout

Posted by on 06 Mar 2021 | Tagged as: Alden Booth, Andrew Fisk, Barnaby Watten, Bob Flaherty, Clean Water Act, Congressman John Olver, Connecticut River, Connecticut River Conservancy, Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, critical habitat, Dr. Boyd Kynard, Endangered Species Act, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federally-endangered Connecticut River shortnose sturgeion, FERC, FirstLight Power, Fish and Aquatics Study Team, journalism, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Monte Belmonte, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, Rock Dam, Rock Dam Pool, Shortnose Stout, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, The People's Pint, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, Uncategorized, US Fish & Wildlife Service, US Geological Survey's Conte Fish Lab, WHMP, WRSI

Of Book Bans, Journalism and Shortnose Stout: a brief history of science, censorship and the short, noble life of a beer created to help stop corporate abuse on the Connecticut River Copyright © 2021 by Karl Meyer

(NOTE: for a WHMP podcast with Host Bob Flaherty related to this story go here: https://whmp.com/morning-news/sturgeon-stout-has-come-gone-but-the-harm-to-the-sturgeons-spawning-ground-continues/ )

A red slurry enters the Connecticut at the Rock Dam

Nearly a decade back retired federal fisheries biologist Dr. Boyd Kynard was putting the finishing touches on a book entitled Life History and Behaviour of Connecticut River Shortnose and Other Sturgeons. It was a compilation of sturgeon research conducted by federal biologists and university researchers—largely based locally on the Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon. Its findings described the shortnose sturgeon’s life history and habitat needs on the river from below Holyoke Dam, all the way to a spawning site known as the Rock Dam. The ancient Rock Dam site is just a few hundred yards from the USGS Conte Lab in Turners Falls where Kynard had spent a chunk of his career.

The sturgeon book authored by Kynard et al

Just as Kynard’s book was going to print in Germany, published by the World Sturgeon Conservation Society, Boyd Kynard and Harold Rosenthal, its editors, received word from the US Geological Service that two chapters of the book were being “recalled” for “editorial” reasons, and all publication would need to be halted in the United States and abroad. The reasons given were rather murky at the time—some were vague stylistic preferences. Kynard immediately smelled a rat. He believed that the two chapters thrown into question were being stymied because they used the term “river regulation” as a key factor in the spawning failure of the shortnose sturgeon here—the only federally endangered migratory fish in the Connecticut River system and one that spawned on the doorstep of the USGS Conte Lab.

The term river regulation was accurate, precise and descriptive. It referred to conditions created when the power company, just upstream, either inundated or starved the bed of the Connecticut River via operation of its Turners Falls Dam. The dam is operated in response to the massive river disruption created when the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, a giant, net-loss energy contraption just upstream, either suctioned or spewed huge pulses of water in and out of the riverbed. This grim industrial model literally cripples the ancient flows of this ecosystem, killing millions of fish outright, while creating spawning conditions for shortnose sturgeon that cause spawning failure most years at Rock Dam. The Rock Dam, confirmed by Kynard’s research, is the only documented natural spawning site on the river. It appeared the USGS did not want something put in print that directly stated those facts—one that led straight back to the actions of a corporation.

As a journalist I’d already spent many hours with Boyd Kynard, asking questions about sturgeon, shad, and river conditions. We’d had many a fine discussion over breakfast and coffee, often lasting two hours and more. The idea that the book’s information was being embargoed, censored, really hit a sour note about free speech, freedom of information and interfering with the facts and data of research science. Along with Dr. Kynard, several of the ten co-authors of the book’s chapters from various labs and universities cried foul.

The US Geological Service actually caused the book’s publication to be banned for a brief time in Europe, but the publishers ultimately decided they would not be bowed by the politics of a foreign federal agency. They resumed printing and selling the book. Here in the United State, USGS held tight to their recall and vague objections to the book’s science. Compiled and written by Kynard and fellow researchers, The Life History and Behaviour of Connecticut River Shortnose and Other Sturgeons was essentially banned—with no schedule for those USGS’s loose objections to be resolved. Months passed as the silencing of federal and state research science and the work of those authors, continued.

What ultimately broke the ban was journalism. I interviewed Kynard. Then I attempted to interview his long-time assistant and fellow researcher Micah Kieffer, who still worked at the USGS Conte Lab. Kieffer was not allowed to speak with me. In fact, that spring he was unceremoniously taken off sturgeon research altogether, and sent upriver to work on studies of trout—far from his area of expertise. Ultimately, I was able to get Barnaby Watten, Branch Chief at Conte Lab on the record. Not surprisingly, he could provide no clear reason why USGS was recalling and withholding Kynard and Kieffer’s Chapters 1 and 3. After that I tracked down the USGS editor, who it turned out, had no experience in shortnose sturgeon biology. It all went into my developing story for the Daily Hampshire Gazette.

But what ultimately broke the embargo was my chat with an aide to Congressman John Olver—noting to him that a group of federal and university researchers had all signed a letter to his boss, decrying the silencing of federal and university research. In short, they claimed censorship by USGS. Free speech protections, university science and the public’s right to know were being thwarted by a federal agency. Once this was brought to the attention of John Olver’s office I was quickly informed that Dr. Olver, a former UMass professor, fully intended to “look into the matter.”

The next day I brought that bit of information back to Barnaby Watten at USGS, asking for a reaction. This was a Friday. And, with just that bit of inquiry on behalf of the public’s right to know, the federal embargo on the government and university science contained in Life History and Behaviour of Connecticut River Shortnose and Other Sturgeons, quickly evaporated. By the weekend, Dr. Kynard was signing and delivering copies of a book that was the product of his nearly 20 years of federal sturgeon research. My Gazette article appeared sometime the following week.

What made it so creepy—the recall and ban, was that it was coming on the heels of the beginning of the relicensing process for the Turners Falls Dam and Turners Falls Power Canal, and the giant Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, 7 miles upriver. The corporate owners of that spawning-crippling “river regulation” lived right nearby. The land USGS Conte Lab sat on was owned by the power company. Hard not to contemplate a corporate connection.

Anyway, that fall, 2012, I began taking part as a participating stakeholder and member of the Fish and Aquatics Studies Team in the Federal Energy Regulatory Relicensing process for those facilities. I had a lot of science and writing experience pertaining to fish, dam, and river issues, and also had worked for both the power company and the watershed council previously. It was a pretty thorough bit of starter knowledge that I could make use of. I knew where the bodies were buried, where culpability for the abuse and failures in habitat protection lay.

Funny thing though, when the state and federal fish agencies, assorted stakeholders and the power company, FirstLight, sat down to discuss river studies and information needed to create new river conditions in a new license, very little mention was being made of shortnose sturgeon, the sole endangered species trying to spawn right in the heart of these relicense settings.

Frustrated, as deadlines loomed for the outlines of that spring’s fish migration studies were being discussed—all largely without anyone talking “sturgeon”, I phoned Dr. Kynard. In light of the seeming “third rail” absence of discussion about needed flows for sturgeon spawning, I asked him to release permission for me to use and enter Chapters 1 and 3 into the federal record of the relicensing. Boyd complied, and I quickly put all that science into the record so it would have standing. I also intervened later that spring when some test flows into the riverbed suggested by the power company were so low that they were guaranteed to interfere with sturgeon spawning. I won a change in the spring study flows–they didn’t get to low-ball the river’s only endangered migrants that year.

Shortnose Stout: a noble public information idea that ultimately went sideways; then belly up

Still, as time went on there just seemed to be only a smattering of lip service at the company/stakeholder meeting tables involving river flows and fish studies that mentioned shortnose sturgeon. It was remarkably, eerily quiet on that count. One day over a coffee meeting where I was downloading more long-term fisheries knowledge from Dr. Kynard, I told him that I had an idea for a beer, Shortnose Stout. I promised him I would find a producer for it, to help get the word out about sturgeon flows to the public. That effort would take many more months, but when out cycling one warm day I bumped into Alden Booth, owner of The People’s Pint in Greenfield. I told him I had this great idea for a beer name and marketing concept to help create change for an amazing–and amazingly ignored fish. He came on board pretty quick.

Over the winter things began to brewing. The Pint came up with a fine label, a Shortnose sturgeon backlit by a full sturgeon moon. I came up with the text, describing both the beer and the biological plight of the sturgeon at its spawning site, the Rock Dam—while pointing the public to the science featured on Kynard’s website. This was all volunteer work for me, done in the name of giving a voice to the river and this embattled fish.

The brand I created; my text, and Dr. Kynard’s website link.

The beer debuted on St. Patrick’s Day at The People’s Pint, and created quite a buzz. Meanwhile, Alden Booth had asked me whether there wasn’t a group that could be targeted to benefit from the sale of Shortnose Stout. I told him that I really didn’t see anyone doing any worthy river protection in light of this endangered fish’s plight. Nobody had taken up that fight. There was no one that deserved either praise or reward in the sturgeon’s name. So, it was let go at that.

The following spring, despite the Endangered Species Act, the published book, the science, and a year of Shortnose Stout, no one was standing up to the sturgeon miseries STILL occurring at the Rock Dam spawning site in the midst of federal negotiations. There was no action, nothing stated from Mass. Fish and Wildlife, US Fish and Wildlife Service, or National Marine Fisheries about stepping in at this critical time, and no USGS work to track spawning success at Rock Dam.

I did learn from The Pint’s Booth that the popular stout was going to be brewed again in March. But where I again would’ve noted that none were worthy of having stood up for sturgeon, I was informed that the Connecticut River Watershed Council was stepping up to collect funds in the name of the Shortnose sturgeon. With that I simply declined the invitation to be at that spring’s St. Patrick’s Day debut of a new batch of Shortnose Stout. Dr. Kynard did attend, and on the invitee list was also Dr. Andy Fisk, newly arrived director of the Connecticut River Watershed Council–happy to step in front of a camera.

Fisk had recently been pictured in The Greenfield Recorder, holding a bottle of Shortnose Stout on a bridge above the Connecticut. Any self-respecting shortnose sturgeon would tell you that the only site worthy of getting a photograph taken for your hard, hard work protecting this species would have required you to pose at the Rock Dam–the grimly embattled site that remains this river’s ugliest, most pointedly-ignored and undefended critical biological habitat on the entire river. The Watershed Council collected the profits and accolades in the name of the shortnose, while the actual fish remained undefended and under siege for yet another spawning season at Rock Dam. It’s great PR associating with an endangered species though.

I believe that was the final year Shortnose Stout was brewed. It was a shame such an opportunity for action was squandered. The miseries for this river’s federal and state endangered shortnose sturgeon remain today exactly as they were nearly a decade back, when a federal agency quickly stepped in and placed an embargo on a book written by researchers doing public research in the public’s interest, conducted at their own federal facilities.

The watershed council has since changed its name to “conservancy,” but in all its 69 years has never brought on board any legal staff, or adopted a mission to investigate, enforce, and prosecute—the basic things necessary to lay claim to protecting a river and endangered species.

The Connecticut River Shortnose sturgeon will arrive back at its ancient Rock Dam spawning site in just five weeks. There the riverbanks have been collapsing and failing, oozing a grim orange puss that feeds directly into their cobbled spawning pool home. The Rock Dam’s critical habitat becomes more debased, embattled and ignored with each passing season. Year after year, decade upon decade, there is no more disgraceful biological habitat—on this river, at the heart of the Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, on the doorstep of the USGS Conte Lab, just across the river from Greenfield, home to the Connecticut River Conservancy, than the ancient Rock Dam pool on New England’s Great River.


The Connecticut River’s Rock Dam spawning pool today. Shortnose sturgeon will be returning to this grim and undefended spawning habitat 5 weeks from today.

In the end, nobody walked the walk. No one stepped up; no one deserved to profit from the sale of a beer named to honor and protect a river and a magnificent and embattled ancient fish.

Here in Massachusetts on the Connecticut River during a critical and endless FERC relicensing process the only apparent player playing for keeps is FirstLight Power–the Canadian-owned, Delaware-registered, recently-arrived operators of these river-crippling facilities. Their shareholders are delighted, I’m sure.

What will our grandchildren have to say about what we failed to do here?.

(**NOTE: for further information related to this story listen to the following podcast with Host Monte Belmonte from WRSI, The River. https://wrsi.com/monte/saving-rock-dam-from-damnation/

REIMAGINING A RIVER: The Year without Northfield Mountain

Posted by on 01 Jun 2020 | Tagged as: American shad, Clean Water Act, Connecticut River, Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission, Connecticut River Coordinator, Connecticut River pollution, Connecticut River Watershed Council, CRASC, Daily Hampshire Gazette, EPA, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FirstLight, fish passage, Gary Sanderson, Greenfield, hatchery, Holyoke Dam, ISO New England, Larry Parnass, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, migratory fish, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Reservoir, Old Saybrook CT, pumped storage, Riverkeeper, salmon, salmon hatchery, The Daily Hampshire Gazette, The Greenfield Recorder, The Recorder, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, US Environmental Protection Agency, USFWS

THIS GREAT AND BROKEN RIVER VII

Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Issue # 7, Part 1, REIMAGINING A RIVER: The Year without Northfield Mountain


Sunderland Bridge over the Connecticut. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge, back arrows to return to text)

AUTHOR’S NOTE: I have found it difficult to write these past days. I am heartsick for my country. Are we to be a fair, generous and courageous people, or just a collection of frightened, soulless bystanders? What world do we want our children to grow up into? I have not been without a few tears at times over the past week. But, I know that good work and living rivers benefit all; they do not hate, judge, murder, or discriminate. So, noting that all of us have some heart-work to do, I continue here, with this also…

On May 1, 2010, I began a 5-day cycling trip from Greenfield MA, downstream to Long Island Sound and back again along the Connecticut River. I set out by bike to highlight and blog about the massively wasteful and misplaced emphasis on the forever-failed, hatchery-produced, 40 year-old salmon program for the river. Meanwhile, across the preceding decade, the formerly growing and robust American shad runs had concurrently experienced precipitous declines in fish passage returns at Holyoke Dam. More importantly, the shad run was literally flirting with extinguishment upstream of the Turners Falls Dam.


Miserable shad tally board at TF Fishway, 2007. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge, back arrows to return to text)

The plunge at Turners Falls had taken hold pretty much simultaneously with the implementation of newly-legislated electricity deregulation in Massachusetts. It gave owners of the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station a license to unleash new, lucrative and disruptive flow regimes in the river—just 5 miles upstream of Turners Falls Dam. Ironically, that same May Day when I left for the mouth of the river, was the day that Northfield Mountain was scheduled to shut down to begin mucking out the decade’s worth of silt and muck they’d inhaled up into their 4-billion gallon mountaintop reservoir.


Cyclist’s Shad Dinner, Saybrook CT. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge, back arrows to return to text)

Unbeknownst to me–and to NMPS management, once they shut down and started draining their reservoir that net energy loss contraption would not suction the river again for over half a year. They broke their regenerating plant; their muck half-filling the mile-long tunnels connecting it to the river. FirstLight then tried to hide their plight and the evidence as they turned around and massively polluted the river for months. That came to an abrupt halt when the EPA(remember them?) issued a “Cease and Desist” order against them extensive violations of the Clean Water Act.

But, a great upshot benefit soon came into focus: with the river not suctioned and ramping up-and-down at Northfield, successful fish passage at Turners Falls Dam jumped back to well over 400% over 2009 totals–leaping to 16,422 shad passing in 2010(though likely significantly more, since FirstLight’s fish counting software was curiously ‘inoperable’ on 17 different days that spring), while just 3,813 shad squeezed past Turners Falls in 2009. Overall, that 2010 rise peaked at over 500% above that decade’s previous passage averages there. I returned to Greenfield on May 5, 2010, and learned of NMPS’s disastrous de-watering that same afternoon. It was of great interest, but its significance wouldn’t be understood for weeks until the unusual and increasing shad tallies passing Turners began coming in.

Just 3 years earlier, after spending over half a decade working at the Northfield Mountain Recreation Center (where I’d even for a time been secretary for the Safety Committee up inside the pumped storage power plant), I quit. The dismal shad runs, just downstream, were chewing on my soul.


Lynde Pt. Light at the River’s Mouth, Old Saybrook CT. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge, back arrows to return to text)

By that May of 2010, I’d been doing part-time work for the Connecticut River Watershed Council for a few years. I immediately informed the Council of Northfield’s predicament when I got back. Sadly, I then had to watch their back-seat, kid-gloves handling of an opportunity to prosecute and hold the power company responsible for massive pollution. They stayed quietly in the background, letting the Massachusetts DEP and MA Div. of Fish & Wildlife take charge of holding FirstLight’s feet to the fire. It was a massive opportunity to begin taking on the gross daily river depredations of Northfield Mountain, but it was mostly just squandered here in Massachusetts.

The Commonwealth and MA Fish & Wildlife did little, though some effort by MA DEP and Natural Heritage ultimately bargained for a study of erosion effects on endangered dragonflies as some sort of restitution. I later felt compelled to quit the Watershed Council, which I did five months later. They weren’t players, likely because their board was full of former power company managers and folks still working as consultants, who might see some power company contract work in the future. It was just wrong that–as one of the oldest river organizations on the East Coast, they didn’t have a single lawyer on staff, nor have a mission that mandated enforcement. This was no Riverkeeper.

It wasn’t really until early that June that I began to realize the full ramifications of Northfield’s shutdown. Fish passage numbers just began creeping higher and higher at Turners Falls. I attended a June 22nd meeting of the Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission (CRASC)—the Congressionally-authorized fed/state fisheries organization charged with managing and protecting migratory fish on the Connecticut. I asked the agency reps if they’d noticed the numbers and whether they’d been doing any studies on the relationship between the big shad passage at Turners and the turbine disaster upstream at Northfield. “We haven’t looked at it,” said a relatively new USFWS Connecticut River Coordinator Ken Sprankle.


Jilted American shad flashes CRASC attendees at the TF Power Canal. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge, back arrows to return to text)

Even then, I was as yet unaware that NMPS was STILL not operating. But I got a curious look from FirstLight’s Bob Stira, also in attendance, when I posed that question. That look–and the immediate notice of the shutdown of Northfield Mountain’s reservoir trails that same afternoon, is what soon sent me on a recon trip with a camera up to that reservoir. I started crunching numbers and writing. On a Sunday morning one week later I found an unposted back woods trail up to the reservoir, and there was the whole story.

Days earlier, I’d independently handed over some initial fish passage numbers and gave a few pointed quotes in an email to Gary Sanderson, sports and outdoors editor at The Recorder. Gary enthusiastically included them in his column along with his own comments. The following week, after FirstLight’s sudden and inexplicable closure of trails leading to the reservoir–plus immediately moving their riverboat tour boarding site from Northfield down to Barton Cove in Gill, I snuck up and took a photo of that emptied reservoir with two fat earth movers sitting silent in the silt-filled bed.


Emptied Northfield Mountain Reservoir. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge, back arrows to return to text)

Their riverboat got moved downriver to hide from the public the chocolate colored river that Northfield’s dumping was creating at intake tunnels next to the Riverview dock site. The silt cloud reached all the way down to the French King Bridge.


Muck-plagued Connecticut River beneath the French King Bridge. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge, back arrows to return to text)

In late June, Daily Hampshire Gazette Editor Larry Parnass ran my rather telling Northfield Reservoir photo above my expository OpEd bringing to light the disaster there–and the surprise fish passage bonanza occurring at Turners Falls Dam. It wasn’t until the first week of August that the EPA finally stepped in to order FirstLight to cease and desist. They’d been dumping the equivalent of 40-50 dump truck loads of reservoir muck directly into the Connecticut for over 90 straight days. That EPA order would keep Northfield shutdown well into November.

Despite Northfield’s claims of the usefullness of its daily input, and the touted critical emergency readiness of their net-energy loss machine to the grid, no one in New England went without electricity in the long months their river-strangling contraption was lifeless. The only mourners during its 7 month coma appeared to be two climate-change cheerleaders: ISO-New England and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Yet even during a long hot summer–one in which Vermont Yankee shut down for a week to refuel, everyone had essential power. The public didn’t miss Northfield, the shad run blossomed, and a river came back to life.

An Upstream Invitation: COME VISIT; THEN PLEASE SUE US!

Posted by on 21 May 2020 | Tagged as: American shad, bascule gates, Bellows Falls VT, blueback herring, Connecticut River, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, Dead Reach, Deerfield River, Dr. Boyd Kynard, endangerd shortnose sturgeon, False attraction, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC, FERC license, fish passage, Greenfield, Holyoke Fish Lift, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, migratory delay, New Hampshire, Rock Dam, shad fishing, The Dead Reach, Turners Falls, Turners Falls dam, Turners Falls power canal, US Geological Survey's Conte Fish Lab

THIS GREAT AND BROKEN RIVER V

Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Issue # 5, An Upstream Invitation: COME VISIT; THEN PLEASE SUE US!

Dear Vermont and New Hampshire (and northern MA):

Our Connecticut River–as grimly battered by diversions and reversing industrial currents as it is down here in Massachusetts, is way better than yours upstream. That’s not very neighborly to say, but it’s true. Your states probably should’ve sued our Commonwealth years back for depriving you of a living river. It’s what’s been owed you. Down here we have a spring river with at least a credible ocean connection stretching all the way from Long Island Sound to just past the mouth of the Deerfield River. It really isn’t fair you don’t…


Just a single bascule gate open with thin spill at Turners Falls Dam, May 20, 2020. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge, back arrow to return to text)

Case in point: as of May 20, 2020, Holyoke Dam had passed some 130,000 American shad upstream. Enough federal and state fisheries data from studies has been produced to safely estimate that as many as 100,000 may have arrived at Turners Falls, just 36 miles distant, still heading upstream. The only data from Turners Falls Dam was reported as of May 8, 2020, showing a total of 38 shad successfully passing that site…

In the interest of good relations, I’d like to invite you downstream to experience what you’re missing. After all, everyone has a right to a living Connecticut River. Some of us just have a little more right, while others—living upstream, have forever had almost none at all. Ironically, that none even includes Bay State residents living in the towns of Greenfield, Gill, Turners Falls, Erving, and Northfield. An ocean connection for them is barely perceptible as well.

But for the rest of you far northerners, whether you live in Vernon, Brattleboro, Dummerston, Putney, Westminster or Bellows Falls VT–or Walpole, Westmoreland, Chesterfield, or Hinsdale NH, please come visit your river where it at least still remains partly tethered to its ancient ocean connection. It’s worth the trip.

And, why not bring along fishing pole?—because, truth is, we’ve been hanging on to your fish here for decades. Most of the hundreds of thousands of migrating shad, blueback herring and sea lamprey here annually never get past the Turners Falls Dam—becoming mired in the 2-1/2 mile long Dead Reach and canal diversion leading up to that ponderous obstruction. Turners Falls is where your living river connection with the ocean, ends. Thus, including all three states, 15 towns have been robbed.

Really, come down and experience what us “haves”, have. Meet us at the cull de sac of the Connecticut here, and we’ll show you where your thousands of fish are foundering. They were promised you way back in 1967, but you never received them. This is a peek at the river your kids should be experiencing at up at home today, and the one that’s the birth right of their grand kids decades into the future. Somebody should’ve stood up long ago. There should have been a lawsuit.

BTW: there’s even a free fishing weekend down here on June 6 and 7, where you don’t even need a license to toss in a line. Come! There should still be good numbers of shad and lamprey fighting the good fight upstream–right up to the dead end dam in this largely impassible reach. You need not come far; your ocean connection ends abruptly here in Turners Falls.


The ponderous–difficult for shad to find and access, fish ladder below Turners Falls Dam, May 20, 2020. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge)

If you don’t feel like waiting, and want to catch the peak of the run here in the next week or so, just grab a short term fishing license at the MA Wildlife website. Honestly though, I’m not sure they deserve your business. Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife was the only entity with specific rights to intervene over the last 50 years in the federal (FERC) license governing fish passage conditions at Turners Falls if conditions changed. In the first decade of this century, the long-paltry (6-7%) fish passage success beyond that dam evaporated down to less than 1% percent in some years. That plunge began right after Massachusetts deregulated its electricity generating markets. Those were your fish! That was your last remaining thread of an ocean connection. MDFW did nothing. Like I said, there should’ve been a lawsuit. They sat on their hands. We let you down.

For that reason alone, please come and visit. Come fish. Pop on a shad dart. We’ll be happy to social distance with you.Try your luck where your fish are stuck!

And if you don’t happen to be an angler–but just want to experience what the remains of an ocean- connected ecosystem look like, bring a folding chair and just enjoy the spectacle. A living river can be quite inspiring. And witnessing sleek, healthy fish that have travelled thousands of ocean-going miles and then 120 miles upstream here to their ancient spawning grounds, might just encourage you to take action. You deserve this. And, we know exactly where your lost fish are trapped today—the same places they’ve been spinning their upstream migratory wheels and energies for decades.

The best way to locate the nearest ocean connection on the Connecticut here is to go where the currents are—go where there is still flow in the riverbed. That’s where the agitated shad will be, trying to discover and fight their way through promising upstream currents. They want to go into the flow, but that’s the bit tricky down here–as the power company is constantly jacking the currents up, down, and all around. That’s why its the river’s dead-end. Those see-saw currents and flow diversions are tricking the shad into alien industrial flows producing endless streams of what’s called “false attraction.”

Some sites, as you will see at the company’s Station # 1 outflow into the river adjacent to the Turners Falls Power Canal, dump their industrial effluent, back into the river while creating just a few small amount of hydro power.. That false upstream signal to migrating shad essentially traps them there–for hours or days on end, spending energy in that false current as they await an open upstream path that never comes.

For anglers not tied to anything like a natural setting, the Station #1site teems with scores and scores of tricked shad, ripe for the hooking. It’s a supremely ironic dead end for the fish and run—nosing for hours into a nowhere current. But, for fish-in-a-barrel anglers, this sad site can be a slam dunk.

Other sites are rather more “scenic,” but the same waffling, insufficient flows ultimately lead to dead-end routes for the vast majority of the fish run. Less than 1 fish in 10 annually ever make emerge out of the Turners Falls Power Canal–which all must pass through before popping out beyond that dam toward your Vermont and New Hampshire doorsteps. Most just give up.

Anyway, here are some visit/witnessing recommendations from my personal investigations on May 20, 2020:

Ocean Dead End Stop # 1: Turners Falls Dam, Turners Falls. Take I-91 south to Rt. 2 East. Rt. 2 E to the second set of lights, where you turn left over the Turners Falls Bridge. Park just over the bridge near the Great Falls Discover Center and find your way across the little power canal bridge and down to the river. Note that the paltry flow is unlikely to be drawing any shad upstream to the dam and fish ladder.

Lone, disappointed shad angler in low flows below dam: look far left at center, adjacent to the bend in fish ladder. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge and view; then back arrow)

Ocean Dead End Stop # 2: Station # 1, your false attraction fishing hole. Follow the above directions—crossing the bridge into Turners Falls. Make an immediate right after passing the Great Falls Discover Center. Continue straight after the stop sign, and then make the second right, going over the SECOND, one-way bridge there. Continue along until you see the brick outline of Station # 1 on the right, adjacent to the river. If they are dumping good current here, the fish will be stacked up like sardines, nosing into the flow that will not allow them a path upstream. Anglers fish both sides of this outflow. You’ll find the paths. An exhausting dead end, for your share of the shad run. The two gents here landed 3 shad in the 10 minutes I lingered there.

Station # 1, exhausting attraction flow leading…nowhere. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge and view; then back arrow)

Station # 1, fish-in-a-barrel fishing! Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge and view; then back arrow)

Station # 1, bring on the net! Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge and view; then back arrow)

Ocean Dead End Stop # 3: the Rock Dam. Continue with the above directions and go along past Station # 1, winding around until you come to G Street. Go right and continue south on G Street—do not recross the canal, or you’ll be off track. Continue down G Street to the end, where it becomes, rather ironically, “Migratory Way,” beyond the sign for the US Geological Services Silvio O. Conte Anadramous Fish Research Center. Follow this route down to the parking turnouts adjacent to the canal, and walk down the path there leading to Cabot Woods.

At the Cabot Woods site you will find a few picnic tables, but, most importantly, several severely eroded paths down to the Rock Dam. Flows to this site, critically important to endangered shortnose sturgeon, have already been tamped down enough to chase those ancient fish out of their spawning ground here. But, those same tamped-down flows weeks later here are keeping tricked shad into thinking the viable upstream flows through the notches here will somehow magically return, giving them a viable route. Sadly, they are not going anywhere. Again, some pretty good fishing here this day. These 5 anglers grabbed three in the 25 minutes I stayed along shore.

Fishing in the oft cul-de-sac attraction flow at the Rock Dam.
Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. (Click X 3 to enlarge and view; then back arrow)

Note: there are far more shad struggling just downstream–attracted by the outflow of the Cabot Station hydro site. But there’s no good fishing access to these flows, some of which are designed to lead the shad into what’s been described as the “world’s longest ladder for shad,” by fisheries biologist Dr. Boyd Kynard. It’s a brutal exercise–fishladder 66 steps to fight through, which dumps them into the alien flows and environments of the power canal…

So, that’s where your fish are. Down here, where the ocean connection breaks. Come and visit! Then, take us to court to get what you deserve. It’s your river too!

Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon: a spectacular failure to protect

Posted by on 26 Mar 2020 | Tagged as: Christopher Chaney, Christopher Cheney, Clean Water Act, Connecticut River, Connecticut River pollution, Connecticut River riverbank failure, Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, Dr. Boyd Kynard, Endangered Species Act, EnviroSho, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon, FERC, FirstLight, FirstLight Power Resources, Kimberly D. Bose, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, manganese pollution, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS, P-1889, Rock Dam, Secretary Kimberly Bose, Turners Falls, Turners Falls power canal, Uncategorized, US Fish & Wildlife Service, www.whmp.com

Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon: a spectacular failure to protect
Copyright © 2020, by Karl Meyer. All rights reserved.

Photo Copyright © 2020, by Karl Meyer (click X3 to enlarge)
Well over 4 months since I registered my October 9, 2019 Comments describing critical erosion and polluting impacts on the Connecticut River at fragile habitat at the Rock Dam in Turners Falls–the sole documented natural spawning site for the federally endangered shortnose sturgeon in this river FirstLight Power Resources received instructions from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s Christopher Cheney at the Office of Hydro Compliance. On February 21, 2020, they included the following:

“Dear Mr. Traester:

On October 9, 2019, we received a complaint regarding erosion in the bypassed reach of the Turners Falls Project No. 1889. According to the complaint, releases from the dam caused erosion in the area known as the Rock Dam in the project’s bypassedreach. For us to complete our review of the of the complaint, please file the followinginformation within 30 days of the date of this letter:

1. Photographs and the location(s) and an estimate of the extent(s) (e.g., height, width, depth) of the erosion in the bypassed reach identified in the October 9, 2019complaint.”

Here are some key points, verbatim, from my October 9, 2019 letter, including impacts on this fragile endangered-species spawning site and habitat—and addressing as well, federal and state laws and license conditions:

“In recent weeks I have noted increasingly steady water leakage in the riverbanks above the Rock Dam site, leading to constant water flow intrusions along these banks. Less than 400 feet away sits the downstream, outer-right banking curve of the Turners Falls power canal, which is the apparent source of these increasing water intrusions.
Photo Copyright © 2020, by Karl Meyer.

In a visit to the Rock Dam site on October 8, 2019, I noted the dramatic collapses of a long section of riverbank adjacent to the Rock Dam. This collapse, of some 25 feet in width and dropping down between 5 – 10 feet toward the river, is apparent in my attached photo. Please note that the draped yellow jacket in the foreground is approximately 3-1/2 feet across. This new bank collapse is just south, by perhaps 30 feet, from an earlier recent collapse of a smaller scale of some 6 feet across, occurring at approximately the same bank level. At both of these sites there has been a serious leaching of manganese, the red colored flow toward the river and the sand and cobbles that constitute the shortnose sturgeon spawning site and egg/embryo nursery unique to this reach. Photo Copyright © 2020, by Karl Meyer. (click X3 to enlarge)

Please take action requiring immediate remedy to this situation, which appears to concern license and statute infractions that run afoul of the federal Endangered Species Act, the Clean Water Act, and Article 17 concerning erosion; Article 19, concerning construction and maintenance; Article 18 concerning fishing access; and Article 35 concerning State Historic Preservation under the current license for P-1889.”
Photo Copyright © 2020, by Karl Meyer (click x3 to enlarge)

FirstLight responded on March 20, 2020. They included an all-but-useless satellite shot for a federal agency that has exact information on this site, and pictures of boulder-rubble that connect directly to their dumped rubble that is currently tumbling from their ancient attempts to shore up the failing Connecticut River banks above and adjacent to the TF power canal.
This is evidence of the power company’s failure in decades past. They now attempt infer that the tumbled rocks here are the work of the public and fishermen, not the failed detritus of their ongoing neglect.

FirstLight also failed to address the requested measurements from FERC. And, as to my original complaint, they leave out any mention of manganese, the intrusions and water—and it’s leaching and crumbling connections to the Turners Falls power canal; as well as failure to protect and maintain critical shortnose sturgeon spawning habitat. Nor does FL address the ESA, Clean Water Act, and current FERC license conditions required at this site. Below are excerpts from FL’s response, and below that is a link that you may be able to use to access FirstLight’s full response to FERC:

“FirstLight cannot provide dimensions of the extent of the erosion because there is no evidence of any recent erosion in this natural river channel.”
Above photo taken March 25, 2020 w/sturgeon expert Dr. Boyd Kynard at right, on the failed banks adjacent to Rock Dam. (click X3 to enlarge) Photo Copyright © 2020, by Karl Meyer.

Further, FL states, “Photographs were taken on October 29, 2019, after the October 9, 2019 complaint letter. Note moss on the rocks located within the side channel in Photos Nos. 1 and 2, indicating the preexistenceof a wet environment. Note also a Photo No. 3 showing ~12” rocks placed across the side channel. This section of the bypass reach is frequented by the public in summer months. The rocks aligned across the side channel appear to have been placed by unknown members of the general public, possibly to form a barrier or walk path across the side channel, suggesting that the channel is frequently wetted.”

You may be able to access FirstLight’s full response to FERC by copying an pasting the link below:https://elibrary.ferc.gov/idmws/file_list.asp?accession_num=20200318-5043

You may also want to Comment directly to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
Here’s how:
Go to www.ferc.gov ; then to file E-Comment; from there to Documents and Filings; then to Hydro; then to Washington DC; then paste-in P-1889 for the Project # (you must have this), then check the little X Box; then address your comments to “Secretary Kimberly D. Bose” and comment away! Make sure to include your own contact information.

AND, from FERC Hydro Compliance: Christopher.Chaney@ferc.gov

Also, you may want to contact your agency representatives negotiating on the public’s behalf in the current FERC relicensing. They will assuredly forward your message to their Department Chiefs who are responsible for the CURRENT license and river conditions and enforcement:

For the National Marine Fisheries Service: julie.crocker@noaa.gov
For US Fish & Wildlife Service: ken_sprankle@fws.gov ; melissa_grader@fws.gov
For MA Div. of Fish & Wildlife: caleb.slater@state.ma.us

There’s also your federal and state/local reps: Warren, McGovern, Comerford, etc., all represent you! And, you can write to the local media—this effects all at the ground level, and into the future.

Also, a few recent radio spots addressing this issue, below, with thanks to Bob, d.o., and Glen!

The Enviro Show

The Shortnose Sturgeon are Coming to Spawn –in THIS?

FERC orders Canada’s FirstLight to investigate ITSELF on ESA impacts

Posted by on 27 Feb 2020 | Tagged as: Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, Endangered Species Act, ESA, Federal Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC Secretary Kimberly D. Bose, FirstLight, Kimberly D. Bose, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, Rock Dam, Rock Dam Pool, Secretary Kimberly Bose, shortnose sturgeon, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, State of Delaware, Turners Falls power canal, US Fish & Wildlife Service, US Geological Survey's Conte Fish Lab, USFWS

Photo Copyright © 2020, by Karl Meyer.
NOTE: the above photo was taken on 2/25/20 at the Rock Dam pool in Turners Falls. This is the ONLY documented natural spawning site for the federally endangered shortnose sturgeon on the Connecticut River. NOTICE: the Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon is the ONLY federally-endangered migratory fish in the entire ecosystem. Shortnose sturgeon will be returning to the grim conditions in this ancient spawning pool in just 7 weeks.(Click, then click twice more to enlarge)

I sent the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission the following letter in October of 2019.

Karl Meyer, M.S. Environmental Science October 9, 2019
91 Smith Street
Greenfield, MA, 01301
karlmeyer1809@verizon.net

The Honorable Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
88 First Street, NE
Washington, DC 20426

ILP COMMENTS re: Turners Falls Hydroelectric Project P- 1889, and Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project P-2485.

Dear Secretary Bose,

These comments are made with respect to immediate concerns respecting P-1889 and operations of the Turners Falls Dam and power canal impacting the riverbanks and the spawning habitat of the federally-endangered Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon at the Rock Dam, this species’ only documented natural spawning site in the Connecticut River ecosystem. I have been a participating Stakeholder in the FERC relicensing process for P-1889 and P-2485 since 2012. I serve on the Fish and Aquatics Studies Team for both these projects.

In recent weeks I have noted increasingly steady water leakage in the riverbanks above the Rock Dam site, leading to constant water flow intrusions along these banks. Less than 400 feet away sits the downstream, outer-right banking curve of the Turners Falls power canal, which is the apparent source of these increasing water intrusions.

In a visit to the Rock Dam site on October 8, 2019, I noted the dramatic collapses of a long section of riverbank adjacent to the Rock Dam. This collapse, of some 25 feet in width and dropping down between 5 – 10 feet toward the river, is apparent in my attached photo. Please note that the draped yellow jacket in the foreground is approximately 3-1/2 feet across. This new bank collapse is just south, by perhaps 30 feet, from an earlier recent collapse of a smaller scale of some 6 feet across, occurring at approximately the same bank level. At both of these sites there has been a serious leaching of manganese, the red colored flow toward the river and the sand and cobbles that constitute the shortnose sturgeon spawning site and egg/embryo nursery unique to this reach.

Of most import in the licensing and management of this critical habitat is the damaging, new eroded channel flowing around the Rock Dam site on river left that has grown from a trickle in the mostly rain-free months of this year’s late summer and early fall—until, by yesterday, October 8, 2019, it had grown to torrent of new water coursing through a new channel adjacent to those collapsing river banks. The corresponding connection to this dramatically increasing damage appears to stem from the increased flows currently being released from Turners Falls dam to facilitate the week-long dewatering of the Turners Falls canal, currently in progress. See attached photo of TF dam release on that day. This new channel presents an immediate threat, through deposition and erosion and pollution, to the spawning and early life stage development of shortnose sturgeon in the rock, sand, and cobble habitats at the Rock Dam pool, immediately downstream and adjacent.

Immediate action appears to be necessitated by these developments. This riverbank and traditional fishing access has been neglected and poorly maintained through the last decade. A cursory look would find neglected concrete pilings where steps were to be built, as well as literal sink holes in at least two sites in areas above these collapsed banks, where small hemlock trees are now sunk to the depth of 4 feet.

Please take action requiring immediate remedy to this situation, which appears to concern license and statute infractions that run afoul of the federal Endangered Species Act, the Clean Water Act, and Article 17 concerning erosion; Article 19, concerning construction and maintenance; Article 18 concerning fishing access; and Article 35 concerning State Historic Preservation under the current license for P-1889.

Thank you for your careful review of these matters; they are of immediate import.

Sincerely,
Karl Meyer

Cc:
Doug Bennett, FirstLight
Julie Crocker, NMFS/NOAA
Ken Spankle, USFWS
Melissa Grader, USFWS
Caleb Slater, MA Div. of Fish & Wildlife,
Rich Holschuh, Elnu-Abenaki”

Photo Copyright © 2020, by Karl Meyer.

Just one small section of FirstLight’s collapsing riverbank and the pollution that runs into the Rock Dam pool just 40 feet away. This is just 250 yards away from the USGS S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center. (NOTE: Click, then click x2 to enlarge)

NOTE: Over 4 months later the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission finally took the bold action to order Canadian-owned, Delaware-registered FirstLight to investigate and report on their own impacts on this critical endangered species habitat on the Connecticut River. THE ORDERS ARE BELOW:

FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION
Washington, D. C. 20426
OFFICE OF ENERGY PROJECTS
Project No. 1889-090 – Massachusetts
Turners Falls Hydroelectric Project
FirstLight Hydro Generating Company
VIA FERC Service
February 21, 2020

Mr. Donald E. Traester
Manager, Regulatory Compliance
FirstLight Power Services, LLC
99 Millers Falls Road
Northfield, MA 01360
Subject: Complaint – Erosion

Dear Mr. Traester:
On October 9, 2019, we received a complaint regarding erosion in the bypassed
reach of the Turners Falls Project No. 1889. According to the complaint, releases fromthe dam caused erosion in the area known as the Rock Dam in the project’s bypassed reach. For us to complete our review of the of the complaint, please file the following information within 30 days of the date of this letter:

1. Photographs and the location(s) and an estimate of the extent(s) (e.g., height,
width, depth) of the erosion in the bypassed reach identified in the October 9, 2019complaint.

2. The dates and timing of the Turners Falls power canal drawdown, why it was
performed during this time, whether it was typical of past drawdowns, and what
measures you took to protect downstream resources and the public.

3. Flow data for the entire period identified in item 2, including releases from the Turners Falls dam.

4. A comparison of the flow releases into the bypassed reach during this drawdown
to historical releases into the bypassed reach (e.g., for maintenance purposes,
naturally occurring high flows, etc.)

5. Any additional information you believe is pertinent to the allegations raised in the October 9, 2019 complaint.

20200221-3033 FERC PDF (Unofficial) 02/21/2020
Project No. 1889-090 – 2 –

The Commission strongly encourages electronic filing. Please file the requested
information using the Commission’s eFiling system at http://www.ferc.gov/docsfiling/efiling.asp. For assistance, please contact FERC Online Support at
FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov, (866) 208-3676 (toll free), or (202) 502-8659 (TTY). In
lieu of electronic filing, please send a paper copy to: Secretary, Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20426. The first page of any filing related to this letter should include docket number P-1889-090.
If you have any questions regarding this letter, please contact me at (202) 502-
6778 or Christopher.Chaney@ferc.gov.

Sincerely,
Christopher Chaney, P.E.
Engineering Resources Branch
Division of Hydropower Administration
and Compliance

INSIDE A FERC LICENSING PROCESS: the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the State of the Connecticut River in Massachusetts

Posted by on 31 Jul 2019 | Tagged as: climate-heating, Connecticut River, Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, Dr. John Waldman, Endangered Species Act, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC Commissioner Neil Chatterjee, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, National Freshwater Marine Sanctuary, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, Riverkeeper, Scott Pruitt, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Turners Falls dam, US Environmental Protection Agency, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS

Inside a FERC Licensing Process: The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the State of the Connecticut River in Massachusetts

Copyright © 2019 by Karl Meyer All rights reserved.


The Connecticut River below Turners Falls Dam. Photo Copyright © 2019 by Karl Meyer All rights reserved. (NOTE: Click, then click twice more to enlarge.)

“River conditions miserable; relicensing progress, negligible. No end in sight.”

Note: the following is a long-form letter to Dr. John Waldman, CUNY Queens College professor of biology. John dropped a friendly note inquiring as to the state of affairs on the Connecticut River. I replied I would like get back to him in some detail, with a view toward publishing those extended thoughts. Besides his teaching, John is an award-winning author of several books. He has been a long-time advocate for the restoration of the Hudson River and its environs. We met some years back when I took him on a tour of the Connecticut River reaches I write about here. John was in the process of completing, RUNNING SILVER: Restoring Atlantic Rivers and Their Great Fish Migrations, published by Lyons Press (2013). He is an avid angler and a fierce defender of rivers.

Karl Meyer
Greenfield MA 01301 July 31, 2019

John Waldman, Professor of Biology
Queens College, CUNY
Queens, NY 11367

Hi John,

You asked me sometime back how things were going on the “mighty Connecticut?” Sorry it’s taken a while to get back to you.

As you know, the real news—as it were, is all bound up in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s 5-year relicensing process for Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, P-2485, and Turners Falls/Cabot Hydro Project, P-1889. That ponderous process for these tandemly-operated, peaking electric facilities, began way back in August of 2012. All the while some 10 miles of the Connecticut have been essentially strangled and broken here since 1972, when the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station came on-line in concert with the now-shuttered Vermont Yankee Nuclear Plant, just upstream in Vermont. Overall, NMPS’s massive pump-and-purge water appetite impacts flows and habitat across 50 river miles in three New England states.

VY closed permanently in 2014. Instead of being pulled from daily service at that time and kept on as a reserve emergency power source for summer and winter grid-stress days, NMPS somehow has been allowed to soldier-on by importing giant surges of electricity from distant power sources, battering an ecosystem with deadly, pumped storage suction and creating artificial tides here daily, some 70 miles above the nearest reach of Long Island Sound tidal impacts at Hartford.

Of course NMPS has never produced, and will never produce, a single watt of its own virgin power. This is not renewable energy, and Northfield is not “hydro” power, as people think. It is recycled nuclear, natural gas, oil, coal, etc., power taken directly off the grid to do the unseemly work of suctioning a river backward. Pumped storage is the only category that shows up on regional power grids as turning in a negative percentage of power production. It’s a river-killing technology–a bulk power relay switch ferrying the climate-heating juice of a disastrously warming planet.

If I were to put into the fewest possible words how things are going on the mighty Connecticut it would read something like: “River conditions miserable; relicensing progress, negligible. No end in sight.”

It all seems to work in favor of the corporation—which, if you try and look beneath all the legal paperwork permutations still is ultimately parent-owned by Canada–the country, to the detriment of a four-state US river and ecosystem, and dozens of communities in Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire. The biological losers, besides the citizenry, include—among others, the federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon, and federal trust species including American shad and blueback herring.

Further below you’ll find part of the asset transfer paperwork entered into this FERC relicensing record on Wednesday, July 17th, via the company’s Washington law firm, a limited legal partnership. They’ve essentially split these intimately-integrated components—Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage and Turners Falls power canal/Cabot Station, into a handful of separate limited liability companies, all now registered as corporations in the state of Delaware.

As you know, these peaking/re-peaking projects have proven major stumbling blocks to river connectivity and real anadromous/diadromous fish restoration above Holyoke Dam into wide open Vermont and New Hampshire habitats. There has long-existed fifty-miles of essentially empty and infinitely-restorable river spawning and rearing habitat for shad, lamprey, bluebacks, etc., in those New England states.

But the Connecticut is sucked into reverse for up to a mile downstream via NMPS’s monstrous water appetite. Chewing through 15,000 cubic feet per second of CT River flow for hours when pumping, it extirpates virtually all the river life it inhales—fish, eels, eggs, etc. And, in grim concert, the riverbed below Turners Falls Dam is left all but an empty bedrock relic many months out of the year—as the flow from Northfield is re-peaked into their three-mile long power canal below that dam.

Today as I write, there are three miles of exposed rocky riverbed baking in the sun in 93F degree heat. The company is actually required to only dribble 125 cubic feet per second of water into this Dead Reach from a point just below the dam. The rest is corralled for Northfield’s huge appetite and for shunting into that canal. Thus, the Connecticut River itself is essentially broken at this point. And, no nourishing, connecting flow to make it a viable river and waterway will be required again until NEXT April, at the earliest. It just sits—baking, starved of water.

During this spring’s migration season just over 7% of the 315,000 shad that passed Holyoke Dam were tallied passing Turners Falls. Those numbers do not even approach the passage numbers achieved here mid-1980s. That’s absurd.

Plus, during peak shortnose sturgeon spawning season operators inside Northfield Mountain pinched off spawning flows at the key site known as Rock Dam during a period when investigations by USGS fish biologists had demonstrated that 4 dozen of members of that federally-endangered species were present. The ancient pool at the Rock Dam site is their only documented natural spawning site in the entire river ecosystem.

This occurred during a time when the power company was conducting their own test flows to potentially move tagged American shad upstream through that water-starved Dead Reach which includes Rock Dam. I witnessed and documented the flow cuts one morning, and another federal fisheries biologist witnessed the same brutal draw-down two days later.

An email confirmed those grim impacts on those spawning sturgeon were caused by the operators 7 miles upstream inside the Northfield Mountain Mountain Pumped Storage Station, who control the Turners Falls Dam. The company has long been fully apprized during this federal relicensing process that shortnose sturgeon spawn here from mid-April past the third week of May, yet they pinched the flows shut and egg-sheltering banks were dewatered. That’s deadly. It’s what’s known as a taking under the Endangered Species Act.

Days later, a commercial rafting company was documented making repeat runs over that single, tiny rapid at the Rock Dam, while repeatedly entering onto sensitive wetland habitats on the island adjacent in rerunning those very brief joy rides.

As you know, a single instance of interference with a federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon is subject to a fine of $49,000 and possible jail time. If this was an individual citizen destroying spawning habitat and crippling reproduction–rather than a “corporate” citizen, I’m sure they would’ve ended up in court, fined, and answering to the law. I think if there was a worthy watchdog on the Connecticut, the company would have been sued, and a judgment sought. If the judgement of a taking of say 20 endangered shortnose sturgeon was rendered, at $49k per fish, we are talking serious river protection money! Here? Nada. Due diligence? Any diligence??

Alas, we really have no enforcing non-profit watchdog here on the Connecticut like you have with Riverkeeper and its battery of lawyers on the Hudson. There’s no enforcement or taking the corporations to court here on our 4-state Connecticut. That’s certainly why conditions are so miserable, despite the presence of long-settled law, the ESA and CWA statutes. No NGO teeth.

Our resident NGO did change its name a year or so back, but not its mission and mandate. And what’s always been needed here is that promise to prosecute corporations and take government agencies to court when they fail to enforce environmental mandates and do their jobs. The one we have submits lots of “comments.”

OK, they also hold a big river clean-up—offering high PR visibility for questionable corporate sponsors who have a legacy of nuclear waste left in their wake here, and they do some water quality testing. They also plant trees with grant money, and pull aquatic weeds. But, since producing several guides for boaters on the Connecticut, some of their key constituencies are the promoters of recreational and commercial paddle sports here—kayakers, rafters, canoeists.

They are pushing to get these interests portage and river access to the long-abused, critical habitats immediately below Turners Falls Dam. I have stated publicly any number of times that in a just world this tiny reach would be designated a National Freshwater Marine Sanctuary, so critical is it to this ecosystem—upstream and down.

Given the fragile biological, historical and cultural nature of those three river-miles—recreational and commercial watercraft pursuits are the absolute last pursuits that should be allowed there. But, guess what? That little NGO just entered their for-the-record “comments” into this FERC relicensing for their vision of new recreation access in that fragile reach—where over a dozen state- and federally- listed species are struggling for survival. It reads more like a marketing and development plan: new parking spaces, a trail cut onto an island for repeat runs over the tiny Rock Dam and habitat of endangered sturgeon and what may be the last place in the reach where state-endangered yellow lampmussels were documented.

I really have no idea whether they have ever looked up the definition of conservancy.

They want three or four new accesses designed for this tiny reach, as well as a road cut for emergency vehicles and a ramp-slide for watercraft. Makes you wonder who is donating to them. This is a mostly-forgotten, fragile biological gem, adjacent to a tiny backwater neighborhood of old factory double-decker homes—and you can just see it being turned into something commercialized and soulless…

It’s a damned good thing they have no actual conditioning authority in this relicensing. I think USFWS, National Marine Fisheries, MA Natural Heritage, MA Historical Commission, and several federal- and state recognized Native American tribes will be looking at this with some shock. At the very least, that NGO’s director should step down as vice chair and MA public-sector representative on the Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission. It’s been two years now, but it’s more like a sycophant position for the NGO–since they get channeled grant monies through the fed and state agencies that they should be watch-dogging over. So, it’s like a cheerleading slot. Before that, the MA public sector slot on CRASC sat empty for seven years, but at least it was a do-no-harm arrangement.

They really need to look up the definition of conservancy.

Unfortunately John, that’s the state of affairs in this critical section of the Connecticut, tottering on the brink between resurrection and conservation protections, and their vision of the river as an attraction for tide of tourist-joyriders with little regard for place, or species, or the intrinsic right for a river to just live and heal; as a life giving entity in its own right. It’s merely a fun-time commodity. Sad, that we have no legal team or NGO operating under the watchdog/enforcement mode here. Lacking that bedrock necessity, a Connecticut River with monitored–and enforced, protections and life-giving flows in the future seems a highly unlikely prospect, no matter what gets written into a new license.

Unless, another organization steps into the breach–bringing consistent enforcement and a willingness to drag crimes against this ecosystem into the courtroom every time they occur. We need an every-day enforcement presence like you have on the Hudson.

Howsoever, I will say that the US Fish & Wildlife Service’s goal for Turners Falls Dam in these proceedings–after gathering research from long-range studies and examining decades of passage data, is: 75% of all the fish that pass Holyoke will be required to pass TF safely. After four decades of failed fish passage here, they appear solid on that goal being met through this relicensing. That passage, upstream and down, is required via the 1872 landmark Supreme Court decision in Holyoke Company vs. Lyman, as you know—decided exactly a century before NMPS began swallowing the Connecticut River and all manner of its migratory and resident fish. Its full impacts have never been calculated nor compensated–to even the smallest measure.

There’s one other ember of good news here: for the second year in a row a SINGLE blueback herring passed Turners Falls Dam. They hadn’t been seen here in most of a decade, though thousands used to pass back in the 1980s. It’s a federal trust species with its back against the wall. Good to see even the tiniest biological thread holding on.

The other test the power company is currently conducting–of its own volition vis-à-vis this relicensing: little swaths of mesh net have been placed in front of the massive sucking mouth of Northfield Mountain—purportedly to prevent that gaping maw from feasting on millions of tiny, young-of-year shad each spring, as well as adult American eels on their way downstream. Early YOY study results from fish agencies hinting that the reach at Northfield is the least productive of this river’s dammed sections. Wonder why??

The absolute brilliance of this “trial”, is they are going to project how effective a 1,000-plus foot net across the intake might be for decades into the future—by staking out several test panels that are about the size of high school flags in front of that giant pipe, during various sucking flows. I’m sure that’s gonna prove an effective snapshot of how a ponderous mega-net might perform for decades to come! Ludington Pumped Storage and lake trout should be the cautionary tale…

Of course, as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission let’s this bloated process go on, ad infinitum, we may all be dead before Vermont and New Hampshire get their long-deserved shad runs, and those shortnose sturgeon–which you assisted as a reviewer in their Federal Recovery Plan, receive flows that guarantee they actually can spawn and are able to begin the slow slog toward viable species-status.

Ok, just to give you a flavor of what rights and privileges a ten dollar (yes $10.00) tax shelter sale in this key reach in a 4-state ecosystem that is part-and-parcel of the Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish & Wildlife Refuge can offer, please see the included clauses below. THEY ARE HEART-BREAKING in the midst of a 5-year FERC relicensing process that is now set to begin its 8th year, if my math is correct. We began meeting in August 2012.

And, John, the company and its consultants do not seem in any hurry to bring this process to a close. The last negotiation with conditioning federal and state fisheries agencies took place in mid-winter. Basically, the parties all stated their positions; then walked away with no further meetings scheduled. This was, of course, after they made their surprise December 20, 2018 filing to break the company up into little, Delaware-registered, llc tax silos… Some ten agencies and stakeholder interests have filed protests with FERC and been granted Intervener status, myself included.

Here is an excerpt from that conveyance document:

“In consideration of the covenants and agreements contained herein and the payment of $10.00 and other good and valuable consideration, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged by the Grantor, the Grantor and the Grantee hereby agree as follows:

The Grantor hereby grants, bargains, sells, and conveys to the Grantee, and its
successors and assigns, with Quitclaim Covenants, a perpetual nonexclusive right and easement for the purposes set forth below in, on, over, under, across and through the Property identified on Exhibit “A” attached hereto.

The rights and easements conferred hereby shall include, but not be limited to, the right, at any time and from time to time and without payment of damages or further consideration to:

1. Alter the level of the Connecticut River and of its tributaries to any extent by
withdrawing water from said River and returning the same water in whole or in part by
the use of structures now or hereafter forming part of the Northfield Mountain Pumped
Storage Project, FERC No. 2485;

2. Retard, accelerate, reverse, or divert the flow of said river and of said tributaries,thereby causing an increase or decrease in the percolation, seepage, or flowage of waterupon, over, and under or from the Premises described and identified in Exhibit A notwithstanding that by such percolation, seepage, or flowage damage may be caused directly or indirectly to the said Premises or to any one of them or to structures, personal property or trees or vegetation thereon;

3. To erect and maintain upon the Premises so subject suitable gauges to measure and
record the flow and level of the said river and said tributaries;

4. To enter upon said Premises for the aforesaid purposes and for the purpose of removing any trees or other vegetation which may be injured or destroyed by the flowage
aforesaid; and

5. As an incident of the foregoing, cause an increase or decrease in the flowage of water orice upon, over, or from said Premises, notwithstanding that portions thereof subject tothe aforesaid rights and easements may be washed away or added to by the action ofwater or ice and that damage may be caused thereto and to structures or vegetation thereon or adjacent thereto by flowage, seepage, percolation, erosion, accretion,interference with drainage, or otherwise.”

Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage remains today the same ecosystem killer it was when it came on line in 1972. Absent in any of these proceedings has been its grim impacts on resident fish species across 4-1/2 decades. It is both an engine and enabler of climate change, as it sucks in 34% more natural gas- and nuclear-produced juice from the grid than it ever sends back as 2nd hand, peak-priced electricity.

FYI: the weakest partner with conditioning authority in all these years has been MA Division of Fish & Wildlife—the sole agency that has had authority to reopen the current license across all these decades concerning failed fish passage. They sat on their hands, mum, while anadromous fish passage nearly disappeared above Turners Falls Dam in the first decade of this century—dropping at times to 1% or less. It all adds up to what a massive taking has occurred here in Massachusetts across the decades via the operations of Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls. Vermont and New Hampshire have been hereby impoverished as well During these relicensing hearings MA Fish & Wildlife has shown little in the way of leadership. It’s an embarrassment for this Commonwealth.

I will, however, recognize that the MA Natural Heritage people and the Dept. of Environmental Protection have shown up and been active partners in environmental safeguarding during these proceedings.

Otherwise, the federal fish and environmental agencies—the people I sit with on the Fish and Aquatics Study Team, have ultimately shown great expertise and resolve in enforcing US statutory law and long-standing environmental mandates respecting a new license. I think the US Fish & Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service recognize their responsibilities to get it right this time—and to protect this four-state New England River for the citizens of the United States as the heart of the US Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River Fish & Wildlife Refuge. They are proving forthright and honest brokers on behalf of the citizens they work for.

As you may know, I am the only recognized stakeholder/intervener in these proceedings who has not signed one of those grim non-disclosure agreements with the company. I have thus become a conduit for nearly all the relicensing information reaching the public on several platforms in this largely unseen process.

But as I write this I begin to wonder: since these intimately intertwined projects have now become a series of new LLC outfits–are all those agencies and towns still bound by non-disclosure agreements they signed years ago with a different company? The company’s behavior in that regard has been so snake-like that it hardly seems relevant or appropriate to hold back information from the public about their river at this time. It’s been like an in-your-face demonstration of the rootlessness and stark profit motives of the new “corporate citizenship.”

And, nowhere have I heard any hint that these newly-configured, on-paper companies are interested in coming to settlement terms any time soon.

With those actions driving the parties apart, why not just move it in front of FERC rather than watching and waiting for these venture capitalists’ next power move? Every year these proceedings drag on the Connecticut River ecosystem continues to fray and fracture along these miserable miles of broken river basin. And every year the company continues to profit from FERC’s extension of the current license. In the interim they’ve participated in helping change operational parameters for pumped storage payments and participation in ISO markets. The power companies sculpt the laws that FERC imposes.

And, of course, every year they do not have to put a shovel in the ground to construct mandatory fish passage is more money in the bank for them and their venture capital investors. The bulk power grid, FERC and ISO New England are some of the key engines of our climate crisis. Only distributed generation and micro-grid reorganization—stopping us from blithely consuming the glut of imported power that fuels our massive over-consumption, will offer us a way out of this emergency. Those new, localized power configurations would also guarantee routes around the looming threat of massive cyber attacks on this behemoth of a power grid.

Something called NEPOOL, a consortium of New England corporate power producers, really wags the dog that is ISO New England. And FERC generally rubber stamps their positions. And, FERC won’t even consider ruling on any given projects’ climate impacts or GHG emission contributions to an overheating planet. Not once. Seems they’ve never met a power project they didn’t embrace.

Hell, both NEPOOL and ISO ban the media outright from their meetings. They do not provide or disclose critical information needed for the public to understand and trust the decisions made about the grid, power production, energy sources, distribution and its import in the current climate crisis. It’s all backroom stuff. One of this company’s own executives testified in Washington hearings in support of continuing to ban the media from these critical, precedent-setting, energy meetings. As stakeholders we are denied data and information on what this power company pays for the glut of grid power it imports while it sells an ecosystem down the river, offering it back in deadened, second-hand, peak-priced juice.

There is speculation from folks I know who design and install solar projects and metering that this company may not actually be paying ANYTHING at times when the power grid is so bloated with excess juice at certain times and seasons. Bulk power producers pay to have it taken off their hands in what’s called “negative pricing”. How much money are they making? How much of a free ride is this boondoggle getting? Just a year and a half back the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s current chair Neil Chatterjee and now-disgraced former EPA chief Scott Pruitt made an all-but-secret visit to Northfield Mountain. No media; no witnesses. What does that tell you?

But then it’s always been pretty much at free ride at Northfield, having never paid for nearly a half century of unmeasured annual fisheries carnage. That’s been a taking on a massive scale: federal-trust migratory—and, resident fish, both.

The public really has no idea that this contraption can really only regenerate a few HOURS of dense, second hand juice, after which it is literally and completely dead in the water—and has to start hoovering-up endless juice from the grid once more, while sucking all manner of aquatic life through its deadly turbines. Its profits–and purchase price mechanisms are all shielded from the public in this FERC/ISO/NEPOOL process. It’s is an abomination of democracy.

Reregulating the energy market here presents the only open path to realigning our energy production, distribution and use with societal needs in the face of a climate crisis reaching a critical precipice. However, our governor here seems quite happy to farm-out our climate responsibilities and import-in massive amounts of what are termed green megawatts. Huge build-outs going on in Boston and elsewhere–casinos, luxury high-rise condos, giant, energy- sucking marijuana grow-houses. It’s all sleight of hand. Robbing Peter to pay Paul.

Rivers are the cooling arteries of this planet, and the Connecticut is the heart of an ecosystem stretching from the Quebec border to the estuary at Long Island Sound.

History will remember the inaction and misrepresentation of these corporate rogues and complicit bureaucrats in our time of climate crisis. Seems obvious that none of them have granddaughters or grandsons they worry for, in the draconian future they are helping engineer…

Well John, that’s plenty enough cheer from here.

BTW, how are things over on the mighty Hudson??

All best,
Karl

Why no FISH?, STILL???

Posted by on 30 Apr 2019 | Tagged as: American shad, Atlantic salmon, Bellows Falls Fishway, blueback herring, Connecticut River, Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, Connecticut River Watershed Council, CRASC, Daily Hampshire Gazette, Dr. Boyd Kynard, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, FERC, FirstLight, Gary Sanderson, Greenfield Recorder, Holyoke Fish Lift, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Montague Reporter, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, Public Law 98-138, Rock Dam, shad, shortnose sturgeon, The Greenfield Recorder, The Recorder, Turners Falls, Turners Falls power canal, Uncategorized, US Fish & Wildlife Service, US Geological Survey's Conte Fish Lab, Vernon Dam Fishway

The disastrously-emptied Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Reservoir, June 27, 2010. (CLICK, then Click several times more for FULLEST VIEW) Copyright © 2019 by Karl Meyer. All Rights Reserved.

WHY no FISH…
All photos and text Copyright © 2019 by Karl Meyer. All Rights Reserved.

By clicking on the blue link WHY no FISH… above, and then clicking it again on the following page, you will open an old PowerPoint presentation that I gave to the Pioneer Valley Chapter of Trout Unlimited in Holyoke in December 2010. It will take several minutes to load, but is then largely self-explanatory, with text available below photos, or by clicking the text tab.

On April 30, 2010 I embarked on a journey to the mouth of the Connecticut River by bicycle, to document the grim crippling of the river and its shad runs due to the lack of enforcement and engagement of fisheries agencies and river organizations. At the time, they were all still cheerleaders for a failed salmon program, ignoring the stark facts of the impacts of the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project on American shad and federally endangered shortnose sturgeon.

At the time I was doing part-time work at the Connecticut River Watershed Council, but quit out of frustration and disappointment just a few months after.

Notably, just a year later, the US Fish & Wildlife Service cancelled its long-failed salmon hatchery and “restoration” program on the Connecticut. A year after that, the river conversation became about the impacts of flows in the Dead Reach of the Connecticut, and Dr. Boyd Kynard’s groundbreaking book focusing on federally endangered shortnose sturgeon at the Rock Dam was released–though only following an unconscionable 3-month embargo of his research data by the US Geological Service.

Nearly a decade later, Northfield Mountain remains the Connecticut River ecosystem’s deadliest machine, directly impacting riverine life and migratory fish abundance in three states.

The Connecticut River now has TWO “conservancies”, but not a single NGO that makes any claims for ENFORCEMENT being a chief (or really ANY) component of their mandate. And ENFORCEMENT is a requisite for any true ecosystem restoration and river protection outfit that means to carry out its mission. This is a four-state ecosystem without a legal team. The Connecticut remains a river unprotected.

Justice for New England’s Embattled River

Posted by on 22 Mar 2019 | Tagged as: American shad, Anadromous Fish Conservation Act, Bellows Falls, Bellows Falls VT, Cabot Station, Canada, Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, Endangered Species Act, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC, First Light Hydro Generating Company, FirstLight, Greenfield Recorder, Holyoke Dam, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, New Hampshire, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, PSP Investments, Public Sector Pension Investments, shad, shad fishing, Society of Environmental Journalists, Treasury Board of Canada, Turners Falls, Turners Falls dam, United State Supreme Court, US Fish & Wildlife Service, US Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, Vermont


Above: FirstLight’s sign along Greenfield Road in Turners Falls MA highlighting their historically combined operations with the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station. Photo Copyright © 2019 by Karl Meyer. All Rights Reserved. (CLICK, then click again to enlarge).

NOTE: an edited version of this piece appeared in The Greenfield Recorder on March 20, 2019, www.recorder.com .

Copyright © 2019 by Karl Meyer. All Rights Reserved.

Justice for New England’s Embattled River

In a shockingly-belated move on December 20, 2018, Canada’s FirstLight Hydro Generating Company petitioned the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for “expedited consideration” of their last minute request to transfer the licenses of its Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls Projects on the Connecticut River into separate LLC holding companies. They further requested the just-minted corporations be substituted as the new license applicants in the ongoing federal hydro relicensing process, begun here in September 2012. FirstLight is wholly owned under the Treasury Board of Canada as Public Sector Pension Investments, a venture capital corporation.

For over half a decade stakeholders including the US Fish & Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, MA Division of Fish & Wildlife, and nearly a dozen assorted stakeholders and town governments have been meeting and negotiating with a single entity, FirstLight Hydro. All have been working toward a FL-requested single new license—one mandating river protections for the synchronized generating operations of Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls/Cabot Station along 10 miles of the Connecticut.

FL’s petition arrived just eight days after they’d quietly reregistered their conjoined operations in the State of Delaware as two separate, new, “limited liability” corporations—asking FERC to substitute their new LLCs as applicants for separate licenses.

FirstLight’s “expedited” request came just two days before stakeholders including the USFWS and National Marine Fisheries Service–agencies with “conditioning authority” in this relicensing, were sidelined by the government shutdown. FL wanted a decision no later than February 28th. Fortunately FERC extended the deadline. A decision is now expected by March 28th.

Turners Falls Dam crippled this ecosystem the day it was completed way back in 1798. Controlled for decades from a room inside the Northfield Mountain, it continues enabling crushing impacts on this four-state ecosystem artery, namesake of the Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish & Wildlife Refuge. New Englanders have long-awaited their rights to their River. Yet Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire all remain essentially without upstream and downstream fish passage and protections at Northfield and Turners Falls—required of owners of all federally-licensed dams in the United States since the landmark Supreme Court decision in Holyoke Company vs. Lyman since 1872.

That landmark ruling should have dramatically changed conditions here beginning on April 30, 2018, when the current license for the NMPS—controller of Turners Falls dam, expired. But a new license has yet to be signed; and FERC has since extended the current license. Still, any corporation–foreign or domestic, must comply-with protections under the Anadromous Fish Conservation Act, the Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act and Clean Water Act, among others.

Results from a Connecticut River study released last June by the US Fish & Wildlife Service and MA Fisheries & Wildlife estimated that NMPS’s 2017 operations resulted in losses of some 15 million shad eggs and larvae, plus the deaths of between 1 and 2-1/2 million juvenile shad. That’s for just one species.

NMPS sucks the river’s aquatic life into its turbines for hours at a time at 15,000 cubic feet per second–killing virtually everything it inhales. For two years running, NMPS consumed 33% more virgin power from the grid than it later returned in peak-priced, second-hand bursts. Though it can regenerate pulses of up to 1,100 megawatts for 6-8 hours—once emptied of its deadened reservoir waters, Northfield is virtually dead itself, and must begin sucking new virgin power from the grid, shredding more life.

Recent studies find that 80% percent of the shad tagged in the lower river and later recorded passing Holyoke Dam were again recorded reaching the Turners Falls project, some 35 miles upriver. They were still heading upstream. Holyoke has passed an average of 316,000 shad upstream annually since 1976. During that time, just 1-in-10 shad ever swam beyond the miseries created via Turners Falls Dam. Over 250,000 of this ecosystem’s shad are likely turned away annually on the doorstep to Greenfield, Montague, Gill, Millers Falls, Erving and Northfield—barred from the rest of New England all the way Bellows Falls VT as well.

In 2017, the 2nd biggest shad run ever passed Holyoke Dam: 537,000 edible, catchable fish. Fewer than 49,000 passed Turners Falls.

So perhaps it’s time to remind our Canadian-FirstLight guests—recently reregistered in Delaware, that when they purchased some hardware and hydro assets in Massachusetts nearly three years back, they didn’t purchase New England’s great river. They merely bought rights to lease some of our river’s water until the current federal license expired on April 30, 2018. After that time, how much, how often–and at what cost they might continue to operate via a new leased portion of some our river’s flow would be subject to all the laws and regulations of the United States and those of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Karl Meyer has been a stakeholder and member of the Fish and Aquatics Study Team in the current FERC relicensing process for the Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls projects since 2012. He is a member of the Society of Environmental Journalists.

NOTE: the piece below appeared at www.vtdigger.org in January.

Karl Meyer: Connecticut River dam owners pulling a fast one

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