Holyoke Co. v Lyman

Archived Posts from this Category

STARVED: Our river has rights!

Posted by on 31 May 2022 | Tagged as: Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, Death-Sewer, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, FERC, FERC license, FirstLight, Holyoke Co. v Lyman, migratory fish, Nation's best landscaped sewer, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, Peskeomscut, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, US Supreme Court, Vermont Digger

Our River has Rights


Controlled from 5 miles upstream by operators inside Northfield Mountain, FirstLight’s impoverished river spill at Turners Falls Dam: its now five, full, grim spawning seasons since FL’s Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license expired, April 30, 2018. Photo Copyright © 2022 by Karl Meyer

NOTE: text below published in www.vtdigger.org on May 18, 2022.
https://vtdigger.org/letters_to_editor/our-connecticut-river-has-rights/>

In Turners Falls Massachusetts on Saturday May 14th just a small wash of current folded through two bedrock notches in the Connecticut River at a basin known as the Rock Dam pool. It was peak spawning time at critical spawning habitat for the federally endangered shortnose sturgeon. Upriver just a thin spill entered the riverbed via a single open gate at Turners Falls dam, controlled by FirstLight operators at the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, 5-miles away. The Connecticut’s giant chasm at the place known to Algonquian Peoples as Peskeomscutt was mostly dry bedrock, with just thin braids of dam flow washing downstream.


The listless, calf-deep shallows at the ancient chasm known as Peskeomscutt below Turners Falls Dam. For a living river the trickling flow from the dam into this basin should be 20x times what you see in this baking riverbed landscape. Photo Copyright © 2022 by Karl Meyer

That lack of flow had assuredly chased the ancient sturgeon from their age old spawning site again. Five years and 5 seasons after FirstLight’s license on the river expired on April 30, 2018, there is still no water for the river or its fish. Why? After a decade of endless Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing procedures, why are hundreds of thousands of American shad lacking river flows needed to reach and pass the dam blocking them from spawning habitat in three New England states since 1798?


The grim “bakers” field of exposed cobbles and starved shoreline at the Rock Dam on the Connecticut–critical spawning and sheltering habitat for federally endangered shortnose sturgeon, and an impoverished upstream roadblock to shad attempting to reach Vermont and New Hampshire habitats. Photo Copyright © 2022 by Karl Meyer

The river and its fish are a public trust. Shad should be feeding us. FirstLight’s little dam spillage is some 20 times less than a basic flow needed to support a living river ecosystem here–one allowing sturgeon to spawn and shad to reach Vermont and New Hampshire.


Reconstruction work being done at the giant sucking intake of FirstLight’s Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project–essentially a deadly, energy-wasting, river-sucking, gas-powered machine that extinguishes the life of everything its consumed for over a half century. Since 1972 there has never been a more direct-deadly contraption operating on New England’s Great River. Here at Northfield Massachusetts is where an ecosystem is literally pulled apart by suctioning the four-state Connecticut River backward and uphill for hours at a massive 15,000 cubic feet per second. It’s really exploited as the Connecticut River’s Death-Sewer. Photo Copyright © 2022 by Karl Meyer

In 1872 the US Supreme Court made safe fish passage on the Connecticut the law of the land. Canadian-owned FirstLight is exploiting our river for millions, while laws and requirements go listlessly unenforced by agencies and so-called watchdogs. The Connecticut in Massachusetts has been an environmental disaster since Northfield Mountain began its massive suck and surge operations in 1972. By whose right?

CONNECTICUT RIVER UPDATE: STAY THE COURSE; KEEP UP THE PRESSURE!

Posted by on 20 Jan 2022 | Tagged as: Anadromous Fish Conservation Act, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Connecticut River, Connecticut River blog, Connecticut River ecosystem, conservancy, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, critical habitat, E-Comments, ecosystem, EPA, ESA, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, FERC, FERC Comments, FERC license, FirstLight, Holyoke Co. v Lyman, Landmark Supreme Court Decision 1872, MA Department of Energy and Environmental Affairs, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, MA Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts DEP, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, migratory fish, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS, NOAA, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, P-2485, public trust, right-to-know, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, US Fish & Wildlife Service

A Connecticut River deluge of citizens “no License to kill” defense pours into the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

READ THOSE DEFENDERS NAMES in the list below…

STAY THE COURSE; KEEP UP THE PRESSURE!

* * Also: On Sunday, January 23 at 10:00 AM, on Occupy the Airwaves, I join Paki Wieland, Bob Gardner and Emikan Sudan, to speak about these critical weeks for the future of the Connecticut River as FirstLight Power tries to nail down secret negotiations to relicense the devastation of the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station for another half century: https://www.facebook.com/VFROccupytheAirwaves/ I hope you can listen and TAKE ACTION! * *

Occupy the Airwaves can be heard every Sunday morning at 10:00 AM on Valley Free Radio, WXOJ-LP, 103.3 FM, in Northampton, MA. Shows are re-broadcast every Friday at 3:00 PM, and can be streamed at www.valleyfreeradio.org.

HERE IS THE LIST OF THE LATEST CITIZEN HEROES of Connecticut River DEFENSE. NOTE: Update continues further below:

Joseph W Stubblefield, Sanjay Arwade, Jonathan S Shefftz, Jamie Rowen, Michael Giles, William H. Pete, Nicholas Reich, James Lowenthal, Katharine Sims, William Daniels, Paige Wilder, Karl Meyer, Shayla G Freeland, Mary J Metzger, Robert Arbib, C Grecsek, Malcolm G Everett, Mike Cournyn, Robert Catlin, Don Ogden, William N. Ryan, Elizabeth Whitcomb, Judith Nietsche, Celt Grant, Susan Olmsted, David B. Keith, Glen Ayers, Virginia Hastings, Annie Chappell, James Seretta, Ron Barto, Robert Dickerman, Pamela Scott, Tanya Dragan, Lin Respess, Rebecca Tippens, Sigurd Nilsen, Peggy Matthews-Nilsen, Amy Rose, Steven Wilkinson, Stephen Kerr, Nancy Obertz, Dorothy McIver, Robert Sweener, Seth Wilpan, Norma Roche, Fergus Marshall, Louise P. Doud, Vicki Citron, John Nelson Jr., Jon Burgess, Robert F Porzio, Garrett D Connelly, Dave Dersham, Betsy Corner, Graham Hayward, Sid Siff, Paul Richmond, Betsy Browning, Rebecca Robbins, James Smethurst, Laura Doughty, Mary Hall, Laura Kaye, Frank Ribeiro, Andrew Hutchison, Mark Russo, Judith Phillips, Priscilla Lynch, Molly Freeland, John Hoffman, Roberta Murphy, Dodi Melnicoff, Ethel S. White.

These folks have gone on the record with FERC in recent weeks and months, stating no new license should be issued for the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station. They are from up and down the Connecticut Valley, from the Bay State’s border with Connecticut, up to Putney VT. I hope I haven’t skipped any of these people who understand ecosystems and have had the courage to defend ours for those who come along after. Many have also made their defense stronger by posting it in the public press. Thank you all, and stay the course!

These River’s defenders have staved off FirstLight’s secret license-to-kill negotiated plans with US Fish & Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries, MA DEP and MA Fisheries & Wildlife. THEY ARE SUCCEEDING: * NO SECRET AGREEMENT has yet been signed!! *

Don’t get sidetracked: STAY THE COURSE; KEEP UP THE PRESSURE!

OF CRITICAL NOTE:

I’ve been forwarded some posts recently. They appear to be some watershed rhetoric claiming to have discovered a last-minute, secret mechanism that can change the trajectory of this federal process at the state-level–AFTER a negotiated deal has been signed by the big-dog players and forwarded to FERC for approval.

That Cinderella idea seems to be just more window dressing from those who’ve failed to engage openly with the public in this 10 year fight. There have been decades–and numerous opportunities for any bona fide watchdog to file lawsuits on any number of flow, critical habitat and wetlands infractions and flagrant ecosystem damage across half a century.

New England’s River has been left on life-support here in Massachusetts—reversed, comatose and massively-deadly at Northfield for the last half century. There have been no lawsuits; there have been no challenges—under the Clean Water Act, Rivers and Harbors Act, Endangered Species Act, the 1872 Supreme Court ruling in Holyoke Company v. Lyman. None stood up as responsible public trust agencies for decade upon decade as the river was left in ruins as the Nation’s best landscaped deadly sewer in the Commonwealth.

We’ve just never had a real watchdog here. If there had been one it would have sued federal and state agencies and taken on a power company long ago. Defenseless for 50 years… YOU DON’T STAND BY WATCHING THE HORSE LEAVE THE BARN!

At this time, in this top-down federal process where big-time forever decisions are being made beyond the public eye, the key place to put the pressure on the agencies charged with protecting our public trust is straight to the top: GOING ON THE RECORD WITH THE FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION. Every FERC entry these defenders made has also been seen and registered in the licensing files by MA DEP, US Fish & Wildlife, MA Fisheries and Wildlife, and National Marine Fisheries. These folks are getting a constituent earful.

wendi_weber@fws.gov, Director Region 5 US Fish & Wildlife Service; andrew.tittler@sol.doi.gov, lead council at the table for USFWS; melissa_grader@fws.gov, at the table for our migratory fish; julie.crocker@noaa.gov, National Marine Fisheries Service Endangered Fish Recovery Branch Chief (endangered sturgeon); william.mcdavitt@noaa.gov, at the table for our migratory fish; mark.tisa@state.ma.us, Director of the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, jesse.leddick@state.ma.us, Chief of Regulatory Review MA Division of Fisheries & Wildlife. Forward them your Letter; then maybe forward it to the MEDIA for broadening the public record!

It is pure fantasy that it will be possible to “save the river” and make key changes to a top-down negotiated federal deal AFTER these key agencies have signed some giant ecosystem compromise with venture capital FirstLight for the next 50 years. It’s pure fantasy, bravado, and soft-pedaling of the critical juncture we are at right NOW.

The only sensible, just and moral position to take with the future of an ecosystem that must be revived to support coming generations is simply: NO LICENSE TO KILL. That’s what’s at stake right now—telling our public agents there can be no deal sanctioning a half century of massive fish kills and river reversals here in Massachusetts, in the heart of the S.O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish & Wildlife Refuge. ONCE it’s signed, there will be little if anything left to re-bargain over. The time is NOW.

There is no sugarcoating what’s at stake RIGHT NOW in secret Connecticut River federal relicensing negotiations occurring behind closed doors between FirstLight and fed/state agencies. It’s no less than the future of a living Connecticut River ecosystem. Critically, what takes place and gets secretly-signed in that backroom closet between FirstLight’s venture capital lawyers, and federal and state environmental trust entities is likely to seal the life-or-death fate of a broken ecosystem here for what ‘s essentially its last chance at revival. There are many examples of terrific testimony and river defense in the other blog posts on this site.

AGAIN, if you haven’t yet submitted testimony–or know of others who want to defend our River’s right to survive as a living system, here’s the FERC formula to share:

Go to: www.ferc.gov; then to “Documents and Filings”; then click on the “Quick Links” tab for FERC Online on the right; and then to “eComment” on the page that opens. Follow directions for “Hydroelectric License/Re-license Proceedings (P – Project Number),” and BE SURE TO use Northfield’s FERC project number, P-2485, to enter your comments.

This is THE PUBLIC’S RIVER!

More Connecticut River citizens’ defense

Posted by on 13 Jan 2022 | Tagged as: America's best landscaped sewer, American shad, Clean Water Act, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Connecticut River, Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission, Connecticut River blog, Connecticut River Conservancy, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, Connecticut River Watershed Council, Endangered Species Act, EPA, ESA, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, FERC, FERC license, FirstLight, fish kill, Holyoke Co. v Lyman, Landmark Supreme Court Decision 1872, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Massachusetts DEP, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, migratory fish, Nation's best landscaped sewer, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS, NOAA, Northeast Utilities, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, NU/WMECO, P-2485, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Source to Sea Cleanup, US Fish & Wildlife Service

THE CONNECTICUT RIVER’S CITIZEN DEFENSE continues:
While FirstLight’s secret January license “settlement” talks continue–centered around leaky net ideas and spit-and-glue window dressing at Northfield Mountain, the public is demanding that its 50 years of devastation cease.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybwy8MBiy9I
* * NOTE: ABOVE is a link to a Wilbraham Public Library ecology lecture series I was asked to take part in last November. The title of my presentation was: “LIVING RIVERS FLOW DOWNSTREAM.” IT IS A KEY HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE to understanding why we live in a broken ecosystem… * *

https://www.gazettenet.com/my-turn-meyer-LastLightCtRiver-44127152

FirstLight led closed-door bargaining with state and federal fish and environment agencies are continuing here in MA, while an ongoing flood of citizen testimony to end Northfield Mountain’s license to kill continues at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

THOSE DEMANDS–from no less than 77 people since November 13th, are also sending a very clear signal to the MA Division of Fish & Wildlife, MA DEP, the US Fish & Wildlife, and National Marine Fisheries Service:

DON’T SELL OUT New England’s Great River for another half-century!

* Read the latest public testimony targeting Northfield lethal ecosystem destruction entered into the FERC record further below.*

BUT FOR THE LONG VIEW, HERE’S A LITTLE ILLUMINATING HISTORY:

Only living rivers flow downstream. But that’s not what you find on the Connecticut River in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Here, 150 years after the US Supreme Court guaranteed safe upstream and downstream passage of migratory fish to and from New Hampshire and Vermont—and a full half century after the enacting of the Clean Water Act and Endangered Species Act, the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station continues to chew-through, reverse and obliterate the key living ecosystem functions of New England’s critical central artery here in northern Massachusetts.

The grim prospects of allowing Northfield to be built were widely known by federal and state agencies half a decade before it began its deadly, net-power loss, river-reversing ecosystem damage. Here, from the same agencies that are today’s MA Fish & Wildlife, US Fish & Wildlife Service, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (the entities still publicly responsible for environmental enforcement and river fish protection), are their words from a key, signed, 1967 document:

“Statement of Intent for a Cooperative Fishery Restoration Program for the Connecticut River Basin”

“Based on the present fragmentary data available on the Northfield Pump Storage Project, it appears that this project poses definite limitations to an anadromous fish restoration program. These limitations involve the physical loss of eggs, larvae, and young fish of both anadromous and resident species, and an orientation problem for both upstream and downstream migrants attributed to pumping large volumes of water. Studies, designed to minimize the potential adverse effects to fishery resources, should be undertaken in development of the design for the Northfield Pump Storage Project. In related studies, fish screens, barriers and deflectors, and flow regimen must be thoroughly investigated.”

Those agencies’ inaction, their failure to protect–while instead indulging in a massive frenzy to recreate an extirpated salmon hybrid in place of a fish not seen here since 1809, proved disastrous for the river’s still-living fish runs and species in this four-state ecosystem. Today, absurdly, a deadly Northfield Mountain soldiers on, while—50 years later those same agencies dicker with foreign owners over emplacing a new band-aid of a barrier net—one full of holes, upstream of that deadly, river-reversing suction.

In the “library” at the Connecticut River Watershed Council—today’s “Conservancy”, there is a boxed, mid-1960s promotional document from WMECO/Northeast Utilities. NU is today does business as Eversource, the perennial chief sponsor of the Conservancy’s Source to Sea Cleanup. That half-century old box contains a glossy booklet promoting the future construction of a Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station. The booklet includes several scenarios and options to premise how of its net-loss power pumping operations might be deployed.

One of them was a glaring red flag for the river, its fish, and an entire ecosystem…

The Watershed Council HQ has a private library within…

THAT SHUTDOWN OPTION, never implemented, was that Northfield’s impacts would be so detrimental to the river and life cycles of its migratory fish that it would have to be shut it down during fish migration season. But here again, no watchdog ever emerged to stand up and fight for a living Connecticut River in Massachusetts. Basically, the only protection ever offered was a net to protect their mythical, teeny, hatchery-bred baby salmon, leaving all the river’s other species to fend for themselves.

Thus Northfield’s gargantuan and lethal water and fish appetite still strangles New England’s four-state ecosystem today. And, half a century later, those same public agencies are allowing a power company to dangle the grim bait of temporary fish barrier net before them once more.

ABOVE IS AN EPA-ORDERED “silt barrier” mandated to be kept in place at FirstLight’s Northfield intake after they were caught flagrantly and clandestinely dumping a mountain of muck directly into the river for over 90 days straight in gross violation of the Clean Water Act. Looking closely, you can see it has FAILED, its anchors useless, and its floats flapping in the breeze along the shoreline downstream of Northfield’s sucking intake. Photo taken 10/2/2010.

Even two years after Northfield came on-line the Federal Power Commission–today’s FERC, still had not been given answers to information they’ requested of WMECO–today’s Eversource, including describing flows on a reversing river. This is a Xeroxed document from FERC:

20010120-0656 FERC PDF (Unofficial) 09/10/2014: January 22, 1974, from the Federal Power Commission to WMECO:

Robert E. Barrett, Jr.,President.
Western Massachusetts Electric Company
West Springfield, Massachusetts 01089

Dear Mr. Barrett:
The Commission staff is presently preparing the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Turners Falls Project (No. 1889) and requests the following information:
(1) In the revised Fxhibit W of the application (page 43, second paragraph), reference is made to the continuing resident fish study being conducted in Turners Falls Reservoir. Please provide a copy of the results obtained since the last Progress Report. If the study has not been completed, please indicate the date you expect a report to be available.

(2) In Exhibit W (pages 19, 20, and Figure 5), the conditions expected to produce flow reversals in the Turners Falls ‘Reservoir as a result of Northfield operation were set forth. Since the Northfield Mountain Project became operational, which of the conditions described have been observed to produce reverse flows? Based on operational experience, are there any observed or anticipated changes in the patterns, durations, or velocities of the flows described therein? Your early response in providing this information would be appreciated.
Very truly yours,
Secretary

On October 16, 1974, WMECO’s lawyers finally replied in the negative to the Federal Power Commission’s questions, stating they still had not implemented the required study which would offer answers to questions about the impacts of reversing the flow of the Connecticut:

“Staff also inquired whether the Company had a study on the effect of hydrology caused by the pumping of Northfield Mountain project this year. The Northfield Licensees have not made a formal study but are accumulating data with respect to Pond elevations, flows and other operating data.”

EVERYBODY KNEW 50 YEARS AGO: yet nobody came to the Connecticut’s rescue…

BUT TODAY CITIZENS are standing up for the living river owed future generations. SEE BELOW for the latest entries into the FERC public record…

BUT FIRST, here’s how it can be done:
Go to: www.ferc.gov; then to “Documents and Filings”; then click on the “Quick Links” tab for FERC Online on the right; and then to “eComment” on the page that opens. Follow directions for “Hydroelectric License/Re-license Proceedings (P – Project Number),” and BE SURE TO use Northfield’s FERC project number, P-2485, to enter your comments.

HERE ARE THE LATEST:

Document Accession #: 20220111-5033 Filed Date: 01/11/2022
Elizabeth J Erickson, Colrain, MA.

As a long time resident of Franklin County I have for a long time been very concerned about the environmental and ecosystem destruction at Northfield mountain because of the power generating plant there. I have been following the research about the decline in fish populations in the Connecticut River nearby because of the turbines and am strongly opposed to the reicensing of the First Light hydropower plant there. I’m actually shocked that the relicensing is even being considered given all that is now known about how destructive the plant is. Please deny any future license of power generation of Northfield Mountain.

thank you,
Elizabeth Erickson
Colrain, Massachusetts

Document Accession #: 20220111-5005 Filed Date: 01/11/2022
John Hoffman, Shelburne Falls, MA.

I am writing to ask that you deny a continuation of the license for FirstLight Hydro Generating Company. The project began as a way to make use of excess power from the Vernon Nuclear Power Plant. That plant is now closed. This license is now simply a vehicle for FirstLight to use its capitol to make a profit.

That profit comes at the expense of the Connecticut River, one of the glories of New England, and the source of outstanding agricultural soils in the Connecticut River valley. Now that we possess a vastly more sophisticated understanding of river ecology, the damage to the river is elaborately documented.

By sucking large volumes of water out of the river and then disgorging them back, the company erodes the river banks which in turn damages water quality. The turbines through which water is sucked destroy aquatic life, from adult fish, to their young and down to their eggs.

This is a primitive way to treat a river. No company in our present era should be allowed to inflict such damage. This river is a part of the commonwealth of Massachusetts. We the citizens ask you to protect the invaluable ecosystem of our preeminent river and deny FirstLight its license.
Future generations will thank you.

Document Accession #: 20220111-5004 Filed Date: 01/11/2022
Molly Freeland, Gill, MA.

To whom it may concern,
I am a resident of Gill Massachusetts and I request that you do not let Northfield Mountain Pump Station renew their license. The pump station is killing all life it sucks up from the river. Millions of fish are dyeing every year, including endangered short nose sturgeon. The pump station causes major erosion in the river banks which then spreads pollution. The pump station is escalating climate change when we need to be looking to renewable energy sources. Please say no to the pump station for our children, grandchildren, all life and the planet.
Sincerely,
Molly Freeland

Document Accession #: 20220111-5002 Filed Date: 01/11/2022
Irma Lorraine Pearson, Greenfield, MA.

If we, residing in the Democratic heart of our country, cannot save the only large river we have, and all the life in it, we are putting our imprimature on the destruction of our planet for the sake of building private fortunes.

The cautionary tale of Midas and his gold works very well here.
Let’s try another path, of freeing the rivers of dams and reversals, and saving 50% of our ecosystem as wilderness.

A Connecticut River extinction rebellion

Posted by on 30 Dec 2021 | Tagged as: American shad, blueback herring, Clean Water Act, Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, Death-Sewer, Delaware LLC, E-Comments, Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, Extinction Rebellion, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC, FERC Comments, FERC licensing process, FirstLight, FISH and Wildlife Refuge??, Holyoke Co. v Lyman, Landmark Supreme Court Decision 1872, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, MA Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts DEP, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, Nation's best landscaped sewer, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS, NOAA, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Reservoir, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, nuclear power, P-2485, pumped storage, right-to-know, shad larvae, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, State of Delaware, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS

A VIRTUAL CONNECTICUT RIVER extinction rebellion has been taking place in the region over the last 10 days. Since December 20, 2021, over three dozen people have gone on the record with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission stating, unequivocally–and in the clearest terms, that NO new license should be issued for the continued operation of the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station by FirstLight. You can read testimony from the latest thirteen people in the text that follows.

Many have taken this action upon being apprised of some of the most basic information about the high stakes games for the Connecticut’s four-state ecosystem being played out behind closed doors right now. Many learned of this through my Opinion piece, “Last light for New England’s Great River” that appeared in the Daily Hampshire Gazette and The Recorder on December 2oth and 21sth, https://www.gazettenet.com/my-turn-meyer-LastLightCtRiver-44127152 .

It outlined the perilous place our ecosystem is teetering in as “confidential” final license settlement negotiations between Canada-owned FirstLight and MA Division of Fish & Wildlife, MA Div. of Environmental Protection, the US Fish & Wildlife Service and NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries have been taking place during this month.

This citizen action has galvanized amidst the great void of leadership and wholesale lack of enforcement of any and all state and federal environmental statutes on the Connecticut River in Massachusetts these last 49 years. It’s been a half century of predation on a Connecticut River wholly lacking in a watchdog–in a state where a devastated 23 mile-long ecosystem reach literally flows backwards for miles at times, and virtually millions of resident and migratory fish are been obliterated, annually by the massive, daily, energy-squandering suction of Northfield Mountain’s turbines in their venture capital electricity resale boondoggle.

juvenile Connecticut River shad, dead

* *and this killing is NOTHING compared to the millions of juvenile fish extinguished at Northfield annually. Shad a just one species out of two dozen inhaled and obliterated there–an annual extirpation of literally hundreds of millions of juvenile and adult fish, eggs, and aquatic creatures each year.

Today in Massachusetts the Connecticut River at Northfield remains the deadliest “Nation’s best landscaped sewer”–far more drop-dead-deadly for fish and aquatic life than in the decades prior to the Clean Water Act.

I’m certain, if this river had a voice it would be raising it now to say thank you to the folks below, and the many others, who are taking a stand to save the soul of this ancient ecosystem. To read their words, please follow down.

* * ALSO, as we are at the holiday break, there is STILL time to enter your own on-the-record testimony to FERC. This ecosystem does not belong to FirstLight, or the Commonwealth, or the “environmental” agencies that have so long failed to protect it. It belongs to the children of the future. HERE’S HOW TO ENTER YOUR TESTIMONY:Go to: www.ferc.gov; then to “Documents and Filings”; then click on the “Quick Links” tab for FERC Online on the right; and then to “eComment” on the page that opens. Follow directions for “Hydroelectric License/Re-license Proceedings (P – Project Number),” and BE SURE TO use Northfield’s FERC project number, P-2485, to enter your comments.

THIS is the giant mess in 2010 made when Northfield operators failed at flushing out the accumulated muck, detritus, and death that had been sucked up from the river into their 4 billion gallon reservoir for years. They clogged their mile-long suction tunnels with several feet of mud, and later got caught and ordered to CEASE AND DESIST by the EPA, after dumping truck-load after truck-load of polluting muck directly into the river for over 90 days straight. In direct violation of the CLEAN WATER ACT. This is the MASSIVE RIVER DREDGING OPERATION the EPA ordered. Northfield went down for over HALF a year, yet everyone’s lights stayed on…

* AND HERE ARE THOSE WORDS OF SOME OF THE OTHER FOLKS CURRENTLY TAKING A STAND:


Document Accession #: 20220103-5000 Filed Date: 01/03/2022
Laura Kaye, Northfield, MA.

Dear Commissioners,
I would like to add my voice to those of my neighbors and fellow citizens of Massachusetts, who have written many thousands of words to you in support of our great Connecticut River, which has been so adversely impacted by the pumping station in Northfield – from the waste of energy from fossil fuels burned to send water uphill just so it can flow down back into the river, to the destruction of fish, and more recently impacting our tax base. Please read the detailed comments that so many people have sent to you and DO NOT approve the re licensing of the Northfield Mountain Pumping Station. For the people and the environment upon which we depend for our continuing survival.

Document Accession #: 20211230-5080 Filed Date: 12/30/2021
Mary Hall, South Hadley, MA.

I am seeking to comment on FirstLight’s relicensing bid for the NorthfieldMountain Pumped Storage Station on the Connecticut River.

I consider it is past time for that Pumping Storage Station to cease operation. The ecological costs of operation, as detailed by Karl Meyer of Greenfield, Mary J. Metzger of Westfield, and others is far too great for continued use of this facility to be justifiable.

Mr. Meyer explains how, in order to continue operations, FirstLight has undertaken to avoid tax payments for its use. In the event the facility was economically viable, it would not be necessary to obtain a tax shelter for it to continue to operate.

The Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station is a giant counterbalance to all of our efforts to maintain and restore our Connecticut River ecosystem. There is nothing anyone can do in advocacy for fish and other aquatic life that can remedy the harm that the Storage Station produces. To say again: The fact that FirstLight thought they needed a tax shelter for the Storage Station testifies to the fact that, even as a business, it is not economically viable.

I ask FERC to deny FirstLight’s bid to relicense the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station for the sake of all aquatic life in our beloved Connecticut River ecosystem.

Document Accession #: 20211230-5007 Filed Date: 12/30/2021
Laura Doughty, Wendell, MA.
RE: Hydroelectric License/Re-license Proceedings FERC Project Number P-2485

I urge FERC in the strongest possible terms: Please do NOT relicense First Light’s Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage facility. If we are to have anychance at keeping a livable planet, we must start *now* to use wiser and more efficient energy storage technologies. It is ridiculous to let this
corporation use far more energy than it can ever create so that it can perpetuate its business model of buying low and selling high. From an energy conservation point of view it makes no sense, but when one considers the vast ecological damage this facility has been allowed to inflict, it is shameful that it has not been shut down long ago. Please do what is right for our river, and for our planet.

Document Accession #: 20211230-5000 Filed Date: 12/30/2021
James Smethurst, Deerfield, MA.

I am writing to oppose the relicensing of the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage. It has had a devastating impact on aquatic species in the Connecticut River, some of which, like the shortnose sturgeon, are endangered. It serves no useful purpose other than to provide profits for out of state investors. It is not a renewable energy source, but actually an energy drain, given the power required to pump water from the river uphill. The nuclear power plant whose excess energy Northfield Mountain was supposed to repurpose is no more. It is time to close it down.

James Smethurst
5 Pleasant Avenue
Deerfield, MA

Document Accession #: 20211229-5002 Filed Date: 12/29/2021
Rebecca Robbins, Williamsburg, MA.
Dear FERC,

I am concerned about the fish and other aquatic life that get ground to bits at the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station. Please do not relicense this facility without ensuring the health of the river and the creatures that live in it.

Thank you,
Rebecca Robbins
Williamsburg, MA

Document Accession #: 20211229-5000 Filed Date: 12/29/2021
Betsy Browning, Colrain, MA.

I am writing to voice my opposition to the relicensing of the Northfield Mountain Pump Storage facility. I have learned so much by reading the other letters that I feel morally obligated to add my voice. I grew up within a mile of the French King Bridge and remember the Northfield Mountain project being built. Both Northfield and Erving had great enthusiasm for the bountiful tax money they grew to rely on.

For 49 years the pump storage process has been decimating fish and wildlife along the Connecticut River. Amidst our climate crisis and the threats to species, this living river deserves our protection. Ironically this area is part of the Silvio Conte Fish and Wildlife protected area.

That FirstLight is a subsidiary of Canada owned power company and that they have moved their corporate assets for Northfield Pump Storage and the Turners Falls Hydroelectric to Delaware to avoid Massachusetts taxes, clearly shows their primary goal is maximum profit.

I understand its original plan was to use the excess power from the nuclear plant at Vernon which is now defunct. So using power generated by other means to pump water uphill is now wasteful of resources, outdated, and
impractical.

Someone voiced the brilliant idea that the mountain could be converted to a vast solar site.

Renewing a 50-year license should be unthinkable knowing both the environmental crisis in our midst and the current environmental damage that is occurring daily from the pump storage process.

Document Accession #: 20211229-5084 Filed Date: 12/29/2021
Paul Richmond, WENDELL, MA.

I have a questions why is First Light Power going to sign a new contract
which allows them to continue to use an old technology, which is destroying
the CT River and all life in it. I am speaking of the pumping stations, which sucks up everything in the river and kills it to be pumped out when energy is needed. Storage has been an age old question since we started producing energy. When you have access how to store it. When there was access Nuclear electricity at night when it is consider cheap, they would pump up the water to then release it when they needed electricity at peek times for more money. A reasonable idea if you are an energy company trying to make a profit. Then there is the method you use to do that. Today there are much better batteries being spurred on by alternative energy to address when the sun is shining or the wind is blowing. So why isn’t First Light being asked to stop the old method which was and is destroying the river and store the access energy in batteries, or compressed air storage in the new contract they are about to sign with the state. Please do not sign a new agreement with this in it.

Document Accession #: 20211228-5069 Filed Date: 12/28/2021
Sid Siff, Amherst, MA.

I am writing to oppose the rel icensing of FirstLight’s Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage facility on the Connecticut River. At the time of its inception in 1972, it was considered a renewable energy resource, and in 1975 I visited the site on a field trip for a Natural Resource class I was taking at UMass. There was much banter about the benefits of taking ‘extra’ energy from the nearby Vermont Yankee Power Plant in Vernon, and using it to pump water out of the Connecticut River and up to the top of Northfield Mountain, where it was stored and released to spin giant turbines, thereby creating ‘clean’ energy at times of peak demand. Since that time, not only has the nuclear plant been decommissioned, requiring fossil fuel based energy to operate the pumps, but it is well documented that the effect on the ecosystem of the river has been devastating. Multiple species of aquatic life are sucked out of the river in large numbers and killed, on a daily basis. The river acts as a narrow tidal basin, causing extreme bank erosion. The flow of the river is disrupted, leading to inadequate water levels downstream, and a resulting inability of fish to reach critical spawning habitat. Add to this the fact that the facility uses more energy than it creates, it is clearly not, and never was, a source of renewable energy.

Furthermore, FirstLight has demonstrated a clear disregard for not only every living species in the river ecosytem, but also for the people of Massachusetts, by registering Northfield Mountain and Turner’s Falls hydroelectric facilities into Delaware tax shelters, depriving Massachusetts of any tax revenue.

Perhaps by creating a closed loop system, with a reservoir at the bottom of the mountain that is completely separated from the river, and using any excess offshore wind energy to operate the pumps, Northfield Mountain could be a viable energy source going forward. But in its current state, it’s an outdated, dangerous and extremely harmful and wasteful behemoth that should be put to rest.

Document Accession #: 20211228-5066 Filed Date: 12/28/2021
Graham Hayward, NORTHFIELD, MA.

I do not want First Light’s bid for re-licensing to be approved. All they’ve done behind benefit of closed doors must be moved out into the light of day and a public forum.

This is one of many matters that won’t “fly” anymore and all those involved will be dealt with, these days of theft are over.
Thank you,
Graham Hayward

Document Accession #: 20211228-5065 Filed Date: 12/28/2021
Betsy Corner, Shelburne Falls, MA.
Concerning P-2485 for Northfield Mountain

For the past 50 years I’ve witnessed and read about the damage that the Northfield Mountain Pump Storage facility has caused to the Connecticut River and its inhabitants. Certainly common sense tells us that the kind of system that uses more energy than it produces is antiquated and foolish. It’s clear that relicensing this facility would be done in the financial interests of the owner of the corporation that seems to have power over those who are involved in granting another 50 year long license. Residents of the Connecticut Valley must have a transparent licensing process, not the closed door one that has been on-going. It’s high time to protect the river’s ecology and to look at the big picture of money and politics as it affects all of us in this decision.

Document Accession #: 20211228-5058 Filed Date: 12/28/2021
Dave Dersham, Northampton, MA.

I write to you concerning project number P-2485:
The kinetic energy that FirstLight consumes to push the Connecticut river
backwards and up Northfield Mountain, exceeds the potential energy eventually gained.

Simultaneously, 10s of thousands of small fry become pulverized by being
sucked into the hydro electric turbines placed at the midpoint of this
convoluted design. The result is essentially an aquatic Rube Goldberg killing machine, despite the substandard netting placed in the river meant to divert the inexorable fate of the baby fish.

This procedure, which has been going on for decades, is the exact opposite of sustainability both energetically and ecologically ” and needs to
finally stop.

FirstLight does not deserve to be granted another 50 year license.
Thank you for your attention,
Dave Dersham

Document Accession #: 20211228-5048 Filed Date: 12/28/2021
Garrett D Connelly, Greenfield, MA.

Hello,
I am writing this request that you revoke First Light’s operation permit for the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Facility so that you know one more person stands against United States policies that disregard life on Earth and serve only short term profit. And in this case it is a false profit.

FERC employees know short-term profits are small relative to the economic
benefits of a clean and free flowing Connecticut river as well as I do,
probably much better. For this reason I won’t try to fit a list of economic
and environmental benefits from a clean and free flowing river and simply
describe what clear thinking people in the future might do instead.

Visualize a line of pollution sensors across a free flowing river that is so clean it has become a world renowned tourist destination. One of the sensors registers a trace of some cancer inducing chemical and enlightened employees of a future country that cares about life spring into action. Chemical sensors follow the pollution to its source and the activity causing it is stopped and cleaned up.

We all know the energy used by consumer societies is leading to extinction of human life on Earth. The wealth generated by free flowing clean rivers can only happen when energy regulators know how much energy is required by a modern and healthy nation. FERC knows far better than I that the real economy does not require a fake enterprise destroying river life for unreal paper profits so I stop here.

Please think about it from a pro-life perspective and then deny the permit to operate a fake business that destroys real life. Deny the permit that allows operation of the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Facility.
Sincerely,
Garrett Connelly

Document Accession #: 20211227-5224 Filed Date: 12/27/2021
Robert F Porzio, Putney, VT.
Bob Porzio, Putney VT

Dear Federal Energy Regulatory Commission,
Please do not grant a new federal license for the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, P-2485. This plant has done huge damage to the river for the last half century, reversing flows and killing fish while squandering massive
amount of energy. As a Vermont resident it is unacceptable to allow this machine to kill migrating fish that should be reaching our section of river, but are swallowed by this deadly plant on their upstream and downstream travels. We folks upstream are entitled to a thriving river and a share of its migratory fish.

Thank you,
Robert Porzio
Putney VT

Connecticut River relicensing: a history, summary and indictments…

Posted by on 23 Nov 2021 | Tagged as: Connecticut River, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, Death-Sewer, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FERC licensing process, FirstLight Power, Holyoke Co. v Lyman, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Massachusetts DEP, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, Public Sector Pension Investments, Relicensing, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, State of Delaware, Treasury Board of Canada, Tyler Poisson, UMass, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Will Ryan


CONNECTICUT RIVER RELICENSING: a history, summary and indictments…ahead of the secret final “settlement” talk scheduled for December 2nd by Firstlight–a backroom sausage-making meetup between FirstLight, USFWS, National Marine Fisheries, MA Div. of Fish and Wildlife, and MA DEP. MEETING CONTENTS: no public, no sunlight; nor democracy…

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCKdIusCr2ysMZTGflFJyHZg/live

ABOVE is the link to a talk I gave on November 21st at the Wilbraham Public Library. It was broadcast live, and with a live audience, as part of the ongoing Root Cause Lecture series exploring Ecologies and Economies. This series is the work of UMass graduate students Will Ryan and Tyler Poisson. Thanks to them both, and the Wilbraham Public Library.

** CAUTION: you might find the information it contains…upsetting!

Connecticut River blog: source of a salmon sham; how the public can steer a river’s future

Posted by on 21 Jul 2021 | Tagged as: 5-year FERC licensing process, Brian Harrington, Catherine Carlson, climate change, Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, CRASC, Daniel McKiernan, David Cameron, Donna Wieting, E-Comments, Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, Eversource, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, FERC, FERC Comments, FERC Commissioner Richard Glick, FERC Secretary Kimberly D. Bose, FirstLight, FirstLight Power, Gordon van Welie, Holyoke Co. v Lyman, ISO-NEW ENGLAND, Jesse Leddick, Julie Crocker, Kathleen Theoharides, Kimberly D. Bose, Landmark Supreme Court Decision 1872, Local Bias, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Massachusetts DEP, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, New Hampshire, NMFS, NOAA, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, P-1889, P-2485, Peter Brandien, Public Comment period, Public Sector Pension Investments, Rock Dam, Sam Lovejoy, Sean McDermott, shad, shortnose sturgeon, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Steven Mattocks, Timothy L. Timmermann, Turners Falls, US Fish & Wildlife Service, Vermont, Wendi Weber

Connecticut River blog: source of a salmon sham; how the public can steer a river’s future Copyright © 2021 by Karl Meyer

Kathleen Theoharides, Massachuetts’ Secretary of the Executive Office of Energy & Environmental Affairs before launching on a PR kayak tour of the river at FirstLight’s dock next to the intake of the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, October 2020. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer

NOTE: as a journalist and citizen I’ve been a participating stakeholder for nearly a decade in the ongoing Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process for the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project and Turners Falls/Cabot hydro operations. In that light, I encourage people to first view the half-hour segment of Local Bias, linked below. Then, return to this post and its resource list below for ways to participate in the critical decisions now being made about the Connecticut River. They will impact its currently crippled ecosystem for generations to come.

LOCAL BIAS link: https://youtu.be/IX2Rv2NYq3s

Since 1872 the US Supreme Court has made it the law of the land that migratory fish on US Rivers are guaranteed safe upstream and downstream passage at dams and industrial river sites. That decision was centered on a Massachusetts case at the Holyoke Dam. One hundred forty-nine years later that law remains essentially unfulfilled at an endangered species’ critical spawning and nursery site on the Connecticut River at Montague, MA, as well as at the Turners Falls Dam in that town.

Further, that law remains glaringly unenforced and unimplemented at the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project in Northfield MA, where the river is literally sucked into reverse, and millions of eggs and downstream running juvenile American shad are pulled to their “functional extirpation”(vacuumed to their deaths) yearly, on their way to the ocean from Vermont and New Hampshire spawning reaches. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has now owed Vermont and New Hampshire—and really all of New England, a living river for almost exactly a century and a half.

Warning sign announcing the dangers of Northfield’s massive intake suction. Photo Copyright © 2021 by Karl Meyer

The current Canadian parent-owners of that net-loss power regeneration/resale site are proposing only an ineffective, seasonal “barrier net” at the vacuum mouth of this facility, the very ‘solution’ that leaves this monstrous sucking in place to kill all those Vermont and New Hampshire produced eggs and baby shad, crippling the prospects for returning adult shad to those states from the Atlantic four years in the future.

The donuts and coffee were on FirstLight for the state officials and representatives taking part in last October’s little PR kayak tour. Photo Copyright © 2020 by Karl Meyer

Northfield Mountain’s net-power-loss energy consumption literally swallows and squanders the entire annual energy equivalents of whole cities and counties as it ravages the Connecticut River, using it as a crushing and deadly energy relay switch.

FirstLight is applying to FERC—backed up by a power-hungry, ecosystem-and-climate-indifferent ISO-New England, for a license to kill for decades to come. Northfield Mountain wastes monstrous amounts of grid energy, while ravaging New England’s critical main ocean connection and planetary cooling artery…

Below are resources available to the public for interacting and participating with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in licensing decisions, and government agency officials charged with implementing the public trust on the Connecticut River.

www.karlmeyerwriting.com/blog

NOTE: the landmark US Supreme Court environmental decision centered on the Connecticut River came back in 1872 in Holyoke Company v. Lyman, requiring safe up- and down-stream protection for migratory fish.

Send public comments on relicensing of the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project and Turners Falls/Cabot Hydro Stations to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The “project numbers” must be included, as well as your name and address, in order to become part of the public record. They should be concise, citing specifics in a paragraph or two, noting Northfield Mountain P-2485 and Turners Falls/Cabot P-1889.

Send via www.ferc.gov, usingE-comment, with the salutation going to: “Kimberly D. Bowles, Secretary.” Those comments can also include a cc to the current chair of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission: Richard Glick.

Decisions concerning foreign interests and use of the Connecticut River are happening at this time, and the river in Massachusetts has sat largely emptied or dead here for half a century—a situation enabled by the Commonwealth and its officials’ enduring, ugly and pointed environmental neglect.

To gain effect, letters can be cc’d to federal-and-state officials who are the vested stakeholders representing the public in the protection of the river and resources. Those publicly recorded FERC entries can also be forwarded to local newspapers and media outlets.

LIST of executives–plus officials from federal and state agencies who represent the public in protecting the Connecticut, its migratory fish, aquatic animals and habitats through their “conditioning authority” powers:

ENERGY executives in the private/quasi-public sphere:

Mr. Gordon van Welie, President and CEO, ISO-New England, the “independent” system operator:
Phone (413) 540-4220

Mr. Peter Brandien, Vice President of System Operations, ISO-New England:

E-mail: pbrandien@iso-ne.com .

NOTE: Mr. Brandien writes the annual support letter that facilitates the daily commercial damage to the Connecticut wrought by the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project. ISO has never acknowledged to the public that NMPS is NOT essential to the DAILY functioning of the power grid. Instead it encourages and shackles the public to those peak-priced, daily ravages as NMPS is handsomely paid to hold back several hours of reserve emergency-function megawatts for ISO’s 20th Century bulk power grid in case of a rare blackout (like the one in 2003), and also for occasional use–at scattered intervals, in controlling grid fluctuations.

ISO should have ago been curtailed as a functionary for private mega power interests. Today’s grid should already be based on distributed generation and micro-grid functions in this time of climate chaos and cyber crime. Energy and storage should be located nearest to where it is produced and used. Future linking of river-ravaging NMPS to 200-mile-distant wind turbines is wholly criminal when compressed air storage can be located close to metro/industrial coastal centers—including implementation at sites like Everett, Somerset, New Bedford, and elsewhere. That would render the system resilient, local and detachable–and rescue New England’s Connecticut River ecosystem to support generations to come across the next half century.

But, today and into the future, counter to Holyoke Co. v. Lyman, , ISO will happily sell off a US ecosystem’s daily life to foreign venture capital interests, keeping NMPS in lucrative daily play for decades into the future. The bottom line function of ISO-New England—forget ecosystems and climate, is apparently commercial first, and foremost. In their own words: to “protect the health of the region’s economy and the well-being of its people by ensuring the constant availability of competitively-priced wholesale electricity—today and for future generations.” They love to employ the term “clean”, but never elaborate on glaring incongruities, fallacies or impacts. Future generations apparently will have no need of living ecosystems, just an endless stream of “competitively-priced” energy. They NEVER mention energy CONSERVATION…

FEDERAL PUBLIC officials:

For endangered Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, freshwater mussels, as well as American shad, blueback herring and American eel:
Donna Wieting, Director of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Fisheries:
Phone: 301-427-8400

Also, for endangered shortnose sturgeon, as well as American shad, blueback herring and American eels: Mr. Sean Mcdermott, Greater Atlantic Region Fisheries Office, National Marine Fisheries Service, Gloucester, MA 01930:

E-mail: Sean.mcdermott@noaa.gov

Also at NMFS, protecting shortnose sturgeon and their habitat: Ms. Julie Crocker, Greater Atlantic Region Fisheries Office, National Marine Fisheries Service, Gloucester, MA 01930:

E-mail: Julie.crocker@noaa.gov

For federal protection and enforcement of the Clean Water Act on the Connecticut River: Mr. Timothy L. Timmermann Office of Environmental Review, EPA New England Region 1, Boston MA 02109-3912:

E-mail: timmermann.timothy@epa.gov

For all migratory fish and safe passage on the Connecticut including American shad, herring, and endangered sturgeon: Wendi Weber, US Fish & Wildlife Service Region 5, Hadley MA 01035:

E-mail: wendi_weber@usfws.gov

MASSACHUSETTS state officials:

Kathleen Theoharides, Secretary of the MA Executive Office of Energy & Environmental Affairs 100 Cambridge St., Suite 900, Boston, MA 02114:
Main Phone at (617) 626-1000

For Massachusetts clean water and wetland habitat protections on the Connecticut: Mr. Brian Harrington, Bureau of Water Resources Deputy Regional Director, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, 436 Dwight Street, Springfield MA 01103:

E-mail: Brian.d.harrington@state.ma.us

Also from MA DEP: Mr. David Cameron, PWS Section Chief, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, 436 Dwight St., Springfield, MA 01103:

E-mail: David.cameron@state.ma.us

For state-endangered shortnose sturgeon and all Connecticut River migratory fish in MA: Mr. Jesse Leddick, Chief of Regulatory Review, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, 1 Rabbit Hill Rd., Westborough MA 01581:

E-mail: Jesse.Leddick@mass.gov

Also at MA Div. of Fish & Wildlife: Mr. Steven Mattocks, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Fisheries, 1 Rabbit Hill Rd., Westborough MA 01581:

E-mail: steven.mattocks.@mass.gov