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GREAT CONNECTICUT RIVER SURVIVAL WALK DRAWS BIG MULTI-STATE CROWD

Posted by on 27 Apr 2021 | Tagged as: 1872, American shad, Bellows Falls VT, Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River migratory fisheries restoration, Connecticut River Refuge, Conte National Fish & Wildlife Refuge, Daniel McKiernan, Delaware LLC, Eversource, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, FERC, FERC license, FirstLight, Haddam nuclear plant, Holyoke Dam, ISO New England, Julie Crocker, Kathleen Theoharides, Landmark Supreme Court Decision 1872, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, Martin Suuberg, Martin Suuberg:, Massachusetts DEP, Massachusetts Division of Fish & Wildlife, Millstone 1, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, net-loss power, NMFS, NOAA, Northeast Utilities, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Project, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, NU/WMECO, P-2485, PSP Investments, Public Sector Pension Investments, river cleanup, Riverkeeper, salmon, Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Source to Sea Cleanup, State of Delaware, Treasury Board of Canada, Uncategorized, United States Supremed Court, US Fish & Wildlife Service, Vermont, Vermont Yankee

GREAT CONNECTICUT RIVER SURVIVAL WALK DRAWS BIG MULTI-STATE CROWD

Claire Chang of the Solar Store of Greenfield speaks to attendees. Note: see http://solarisworking.org/. Photo Copyright © 2021 by James Smethurst. All Right Reserved

Northfield MA. The biggest story on the 410-mile long Connecticut River this Earth Week did not center on yet another promo video or soft news story about people doing trash cleanups. It took place on Saturday, April 24th, when more than 70 people of all ages–from as far as Springfield, South Hadley and Northampton MA–all the way upstream to Putney VT, turned out for a 3-mile river walk to learn about the 50 years of devastation that the Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station has wrought on their four-state ecosystem.

THE DAY’S SPEAKERS BEARING WITNESS

Attendees heard from host, Traprock Center for Peace and Justice’s Anna Gyorgy, about the long, deep connection of this river killing to nearly 50 years of nuclear power excess and damages (www.traprock.org). They heard from Claire Chang of the Solar Store of Greenfield about alternative energy, solar installation and bulk storage alternatives to destroying whole ecosystems. And, I spoke at length about the long, grim and deadly history that has brought us to a crossroads for a living future for the Connecticut River vs. this massively violent machine.

WHERE THE RUBBER NEVER MET THE ROAD

What people heard about was that shutting up NMPS’s killer intake pipes is the only river cleanup that matters. Doing just that would have saved a now-crippled ecosystem–had there been an actual watchdog organization on the Connecticut in 1972–or again, when Vermont Yankee’s license expired in 2012. Those are the cleanups that would have spared an entire ecosystem, decade-upon-decade of this hide-in-plain-sight sucking wound.

THE LEGACY OF FAILURES

They learned the Commonwealth Massachusetts has endlessly failed this ecosystem, facilitating its exploitation to the detriment of 3 other New England states by not protecting it. And, that the federal and state fish agencies have failed it as well by first chasing, then never relinquishing, their long-failed salmon experiment, for a fish not seen here since 1809. And also that the NGO claiming guardianship here since 1952, massively failed New England’s River–never stepping up to challenge and prosecute the devastation of the power companies, nor calling out or suing government agencies charged to protect it under state and federal law.

LANDMARK SUPREME COURT DECISION 1872: HOLYOKE CO. v. LYMAN

Living rivers do not flow backwards. People walked a mile and a half to the intake pipes of a deadly machine that has laid waste to billions upon billions of fish across a half century—literally suctioning them to death while pulling miles of river current into reverse. Folks learned that building of this net-power-loss, river-gorging appliance and the deadly impacts it created on migrating fish, particularly American shad—actually flew in the face of the 1872 landmark Supreme Court decision in Holyoke Company v. Lyman, a full century before NMPS was built. Given that law, it had no right to exist here at all.</strong>

Photo Copyright © 2021 by Robert Flaherty All Rights Reserved.

What did that landmark decision require of dam system owners and private companies operating on the Connecticut–and on all rivers of the United States a century and a half ago? It said all must provide safe fish passage, upstream and down of their facilities, as “public rights.” Visitors also learned that the Canadian owners of this 365-day-a-year slicing machine want only to provide a flimsy net, part way across its killer mouth, for just over two months out of the year. That will largely leave the eggs, larvae and juveniles of most species—including migrants, in full peril. Names of agency leaders charged with saving the river for our grandkids were supplied.

NOTE:text below derives from a The GREAT RIVER WALK handout

NO NEW LICENSE TO KILL: THE NORTHFIELD MOUNTAIN PUMPED STORAGE STATION: A HALF CENTURY OF WASTE, DEATH AND ECOSYSTEM DESTRUCTION.</strong> Notes from Karl Meyer, FERC relicensing Stakeholder and Intervener since 2012

To COMMENT: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Project License P-2485 (www.ferc.gov E-comments) Include your name, address, project # P-2485 and a brief. specific remedy for FERC to apply.

Owner:venture-capital firm PSP Investments, a Canadian Crown Corporation.
Operating in MA as: FirstLight Power Resources.
Current tax sheltering llc registration since 2018 out of MA & New England: in Dover, Delaware

NMPS is an energy consumer. It has never produced a single watt of virgin electricity. Every day this machine consumes huge pulses of electricity from the power grid to suck massive gulps from the Connecticut backward and uphill for hours on end at a rate of up to 15,000 cubic feet per second(cfs). That sucking pulls the Connecticut backward at times for over 3 miles downstream. SOURCE: FERC P-2485 relicensing Study 3.3.9 appendices.

This is not a hydropower plant; it is an energy wasting machine operating exactly like an electric toilet. It runs on imported electricity, profiting on the buy-low/re-sell high model.

RUNNING BACKWARD FOR DECADES

**VIEW Federal Power Commission document with link HERE FPC 1974 flow reversals

That 15,000 cfs is the equivalent of 60, seven-bedroom mansions being swallowed each minute, for hours on end—with everything from tiny fish eggs to full sized American eels obliterated by its turbines. Twenty-four species are subject to that suction. For shad alone it’s estimated that over 2 million juveniles and 10 million eggs and larvae die here annually. That’s just one species. How many billions of fish die annually, across all species—and now across 49 years? A fixed, monitored, year-round barrier screen, fully across its mouth was required.

NMPS then later sends that deadened water back down in peak-priced pulses for a few hours in the morning and afternoon at up to 20,000 cfs. A living river goes in, all that comes out is dead. The Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station does its killing in the heart of the Silvio O. Conte Connecticut River National FISH & Wildlife Refuge. This Canadian company is operating in the heart of a four-state ECOSYSTEM, crippling and pulling it apart daily. It should be relegated to rare emergency use.

The scheme to pair this eviscerating machine with future ocean wind is a nightmare—fully a Greek tragedy. Ocean wind sent to kill its river babies. Future generations require a living river.

Energy should be consumed close to where it is produced. That is where the load is. In New England that load is at the coast. Large-scale compressed air plants can be built at New Bedford, Everett, Boston, Somerset and Middltown RI for large-scale wind energy storage. If FERC allows massive LNG export farms to be built at the coast, it can require space for “local” energy storage—right near all those current “natural” gas tank farms of today.Storage needs to be adjacent to those metro cities where it is consumed. That battery storage can be constructed is a given.

In the age of Climate disruption the goal of an electricity network–one safe from mass outages due to cyber attacks and wind and flood events–disrupting the current corporate mega-grid built for huge area energy relays, should be micro-grids and distributed generation.

That decreases vulnerability and will encourage CONSERVATION—never mentioned by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission or ISO-New England. That is the formula that begins to tackle climate disruption. It is time for Re-Regulation of the power grid. It is time for TRANSPARENCY in the Commonwealth’s energy policy–done behind closed doors with monopoly capital interests running the ISO-NE and NEPOOL table, while excluding even journalists from meetings. This plant squeezes the life out of approximately 1-1/2 billion gallons of Connecticut River water daily—its deadened re-sale power for export—for “load” consumers far from the small towns and cities of this 4 –state ecosystem.

NMPS was built by WMECO/Northeast Utilities(NU) to run off the bloated excess juice of their Vermont Yankee nuclear plant, 15 miles upriver. VY closed forever in 2014. NU today remains massively wired into and out of this facility’s energy resale loop. Today NMPS deadly consumption continues on 50% climate scorching natural gas, 25% nuclear from NH and CT, and 10% actual hydropower from Canada.


The massively fouled Connecticut River and NMPS’s intake tunnels on September 6, 2010. Photo Copyright © 2021 by Karl Meyer

In 2010 NMPS choked on its own effluent, and unexpectedly did not run for over half a year after fouling its massive tunnels with silt and muck. Shut down from May 1st thru early November– after being hit with a “cease and desist” order from the EPA for secretly and illegally dumping that grim effluent directly into the Connecticut for months, in gross violation of the Clean Water Act. Nobody lost power during NMPS’s surprise shutdown for over half a year. That’s despite arguments from grid operator ISO-New England about how necessary its killer, daily re-sale juice is to keeping the lights on. Even during record-breaking summer heat in 2010—when VT Yankee even shut down for refueling, the power grid held together just fine.

What did happen in the 4-state ecosystem—quieted without Northfield’s massive disruption, was that dismal fish passage for American shad just downstream at Turners Falls dam shot up 800% above yearly averages for the previous decade. That was the ugly decade when NMPS began operating differently—after Massachusetts decided to deregulate electricity markets.

NMPS is an ecosystem-crippling, anti-gravity machine, gobbling vast amounts of energy to send a river into reverse and uphill—a buy-low/re-sell-high, cash cow regenerating set-up.

This machine is a crime against nature.

At a time when the planet is dying, you revive ecosystems. This river belongs to our grandchildren and the future, not to greedy foreign investment firms. The corporate concern here is merely the weight of water—live fish and living rivers are nuisance expenses. What would suffice here would be a bunch of pulleys and a giant anvil, like a Roadrunner cartoon. Stop killing the future for our kids.

ORIGINAL OWNER/BUILDER: WMECO/Northeast Utilities—completed in 1972 to run off the excess electricity from its sister plant, Vermont Yankee nuclear station, completed in 1972. NU also had ownership in VT Yankee. Today NU/Northeast Utilities is “doing business as” Eversource. Eversource remains massively wired into and out of NMPS/FirstLight facilities.
Eversource/NU never left us. They just decided to dump their creaky and massively-fined nuclear plants at Millstone and Haddam, to become a bigger, more concealed monopoly. What they did was transfer emphasis to T & D–Transmission and Distribution. They would make their bucks by CONTROLLING THE ENERGY TOLL ROAD. Note the massive new wire structures and the some 18-line-long laundry list of charges on your energy bill for simply for T & D. They have as yet not figured out how to get a kick back for delivering STATIC ELECTRICITY.

Eversource is perennially green-washed through its major-money sponsorship of the Connecticut River Watershed Council/Conservancy’s “Source to Sea Cleanup.” NU/Eversource and the Council (founded 1952) have a long, close, deep-pocketed history. Thus, this green-washed, river-killing apparatus has been quietly-enabled for decades.

A 2021 Brown University study named Eversource as MA’s largest energy spender against clean energy and climate legislation: https://ibes.brown.edu/sites/g/files/dprerj831/files/MA-CSSN-Report-1.20.2021-Corrected-text.pdf

The following companies are now in business as “wholly owned subsidiariesof Eversource:
Connecticut Light & Power, Public Service Company of New Hampshire, PSNH Funding LLC 3, NSTAR Electric Company, Harbor Electric Energy Company, Yankee Energy System, Inc., Yankee Gas Service, NSTAR Gas Company of Mass.(EGMA), Hopkinton LNG Corp., Eversource Gas Transmission II LLC, Eversource Holdco Corporation, Eversource Investment LLC, Eversouce Investment Service Company LLC, Aquarion Company, Aquarion Water Company, Aquarion Water Company of Connecticut, Aquarion Water Company of Massachusetts, Inc., Aquarion Water Capital of Massachusetts, Inc., Aquarion Water Company of New Hampshire, Inc., NU Enterprises, Inc., IP Strategy LLC, Eversource Energy Service Company, The Rocky River Realty Company, Holyoke Water Power Company. Eversource has residual interest in nuclear plants they’ve sold: Seabrook NH and Millstone CT.

Part ownership in: Alps to Berkshires LLC, 50% in transmission line to NY State, 15% ownership in Algonquin Gas Transmission LLC, BSW Holdco LLC, BSW ProjectCo LLC, Bay State Holdco LLC, Bay State Wind LLC, Northeast Wind Energy LLC, North East Offshore, LLC, New England Hydro-Transmission Electric Company, New England Hydro-Transmission Corp. Eversource also has interest and ownership in companies that own and manage decommissioned nuclear plants they once owned, including: Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, 65%, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, 24%, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, 52%. SOURCE: https://www.eversource.com/content/wma/about/about-us/doing-business-with-us/affiliates/list-of-affiliates

RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURING A LIVING RIVER FUTURE FOR OUR KIDS:

Kathleen Theoharides: Sec. of MA Energy & Environmental Affairs
Martin Suuberg: Commissioner MA Department of Environmental Protection
Ron Amidon: Commissioner MA Dept. of Fish & Game
Daniel McKiernan: Director MA Division of Marine Fisheries
Wendi Weber: Director Region 5, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Julie Crocker: Branch Chief, Endangered Fish Recovery unit, NOAA, Gloucester MA

It is time to break up the monopolies, re-regulate energy in Massachusetts for our children’s sake—and:RESTORE the CONNECTICUT RIVER ECOSYSTEM.

The Hidden Costs of Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage

Posted by on 01 Sep 2014 | Tagged as: Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, ecosystem, Entrainment, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, FirstLight, GDF-Suez FirstLight, Haddam nuclear plant, Ludington Pumped Storage Plant, MA Division of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, resident river fish, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Vermont Yankee, Yankee Atomic, Yankee Rowe Nuclear Plant

Copyright © 2014 by Karl Meyer

The hidden costs of Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage: after Vermont Yankee closes, FirstLight wants to ramp up pumping and profits

(a version of this piece first appeared in the Greenfield Recorder, August 23, 2014)

Vermont Yankee, the last of the region’s nuclear plants, will close in December. In response, GDF-Suez FirstLight’s Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage plant is looking to change its stripes. On June 27th it applied to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for a “temporary” license amendment to allow it broad new freedoms to consume unprecedented amounts of the Connecticut River from December 1, 2014 through March 31, 2015. That plan would add an additional 22 feet of pumping capacity to its 5-billion gallon reservoir, sucked directly from the river. More pumping is certain to create more riverbank erosion and draw more silt into that reservoir. It will also kill untold thousands of the public’s resident river fish.

The unprecedented request defies logic. Northfield was built specifically to use energy from local nuclear plants to push water up to its reservoir. In its request FirstLight also cited the closing of the 330 megawatt Salem Harbor coal plant as rationale for why it should be allowed to pump more, and grow larger. FirstLight Hydro Compliance Director John Howard stated, “The requested increase in operational flexibility is needed to provide ISO-New England with additional resources to deal with a potential shortage of energy in the Northeast this winter.” However Andrea Donlon of the Connecticut River Watershed Council found that ISO-New England, the grid’s Independent System Operator, had made no requests concerning Northfield, stating it expected to have adequate energy supply this winter.

FirstLight’s application failed to mention is that it is shutting down its own 135 megawatt Mt. Tom Coal Plant this October. Rather than the “peaking energy” and “emergency resource” plant it’s been since coming on-line in 1972, Northfield seems to be implying it will somehow serve as a replacement for those 24/7 “baseload” energy plants. The other logic-defying reality is that it would be consuming more baseload energy to create more brief pulses of high-priced energy to re-sell to us at “spot” market prices.

Northfield was fashioned during the nuclear build-out in the late 1960s to use the excess power generated at night from nuclear plants in Rowe, Vernon, VT and Haddam, CT to gulp giant slugs of the Connecticut up to its reservoir. When demand “peaked” during mornings or late afternoons it would release that stored nuclear energy—our river, back to its bed through massive turbines. It could produce some 1,000 megawatts in just minutes, great for short-term needs and emergencies. But it could only store enough water to produce 6-8 hours of electricity, total. Depleted, it then waited to re-start the process.

In her book “Inventing Niagara” Ginger Strand described the inefficiencies and rationale behind selling pumped storage electricity to the public as a textbook case of corporate capitalism: buy low, sell high. Northfield has never been a renewable hydro source. It is inefficient and operates at a net-energy loss. While its impacts on the river ecosystem are profound, its brief, staggering pulses of violent, high-volume output are no more efficient than that of legacy electric producers, just more short-term profitable.

Northfield only makes sense while it operates as a designated nuclear adjunct, run on the excesses of the region’s short-lived and now-shuttered nuclear fleet. But now it wants to soldier on, utilizing imported power and climate-changing resources. Meanwhile the river pays an as-yet unstudied price–as the public is asked to accept yet more “peak” energy, repackaged and re-sold at “peak” prices culled from bidding boards on the “spot” market.

FirstLight’s FERC request sparked official replies from entities involved in the current 5-year relicensing of Northfield. The National Marine Fisheries Service’s William McDavitt noted to John Howard “the timing of this temporary amendment application is a bit unfortunate as the proposed change could bear some impact on proposed 3.1.2 Northfield Mountain/Turners Falls Operations Impact on Existing Erosion and Potential Bank Instability. Were the proposed changes to go into effect, it seems as though the duration that NMPS pumps or generates could be changed.”

MA Fish and Wildlife made no objections to the up-rate, but the Watershed Council noted that fish kills there–known as “entrainment”, are worrisome, “Currently the entrainment impact of the NMPS facility during the winter is not well understood, which the pending appeal by USFWS regarding the sufficiency of FirstLight’s proposed entrainment study well illustrates,” further noting, “So until such time as we have a much better understanding of the entrainment impacts of NMPS, it seems inappropriate to request additional pumping capacity.”

In 1995 the owners of the Ludington(MI) Pumped Storage Plant agreed to a $172 million dollar settlement for its killing of the public’s fish across the previous two decades. There, according to the Ludington Daily News, they at least had the benefit of a one-time study showing LPSP “in a single year, killed 440,000 salmon and trout, 85,000 perch and millions of forage fish that served as food for valuable game.”

Since 1972 it’s been a free ride up at Northfield.

Karl Meyer is a member of the Society of Environmental Journalists.

The curious nucelar history of Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station

Posted by on 08 May 2014 | Tagged as: American shad, Connecticut River, Connecticut River ecosystem, Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon, ecosystem, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, federal trust fish, federally-endangered shortnose sturgeon, FERC license, FirstLight, GDF-Suez FirstLight, Haddam nuclear plant, Millstone 1, Montague Nuclear Station, Northfield Mountain, Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage Station, right-to-know, shad, shad larvae, US Fish & Wildlife Service, USFWS, Vermont Yankee, Yankee Atomic

Copyright © 2014, by Karl Meyer

The curious nuclear history of Northfield Mountain’s pumped storage plant

(The following piece first appeared on April 30, 2014 in The Recorder in Greenfield, MA, under: Follow the power currents; How the pumping station once fit)

GDF-Suez FirstLight has applied for a new 30-year license from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for its Northfield Mountain Pumped Storage plant on the Connecticut.  In this 5-year relicensing process US Fish & Wildlife Service has requested a study to protect a public resource: they want to know the mortality impacts NMPS has on eggs and larvae of migratory American shad.  But FirstLight wants FERC to substitute data from a 22 year-old Northfield study–their counsel has argued that eggs and larvae aren’t technically migratory, and thus have no right to protection at NMPS. 

Pumped storage is a most inefficient form of generating “hydro” electricity, and NMPS is not what it once was.  When proposed, Northfield was to be a nuclear-charged plant designed to gulp-up massive amounts of the Connecticut River, pushing it uphill to a reservoir carved into a mountain.  This would be done purchasing cheap, otherwise-wasted, night-generated nuclear energy from a fleet of soon-to-be-built local plants–which don’t switch off at night.

Once the net-loss task of pushing water uphill was accomplished via nuclear megawatts and reversing turbines, they’d send that water charging downhill to generate large pulses of energy during peak-use times.  Profits would come from reselling that energy back into the electric grid when demand and prices were highest, with consumers picking up the tab. 

But a river system also bore the hidden costs of NMPS and now USFWS wants to know what they are. FirstLight today doesn’t dispute NMPS kills all adult and juvenile shad drawn into its plant.  But that’s just one species.  FERC itself is mandated to protect federal trust fish, and the public is entitled to information on NMPS’s impacts.  Researchers report it sometimes draws so much river water that boats 5 miles downstream are pulled backward.    

Because of the limits of physics NMPS can only operate for 6 – 8 hours.  Then, water-depleted and power-less—it must again purchase new outside electricity to pump water uphill.  It was new technology when NMPS was proposed–technically “hydro” electricity, but not in the way people commonly understood it. 

During mid-1960s Federal Power Commission hearings, questions arose about the proposed NMPS plant’s impacts on the ecosystem.  One option, never implemented, was that it would cease operating during migration season to avoid slicing up the public’s fish in accordance with goals of the federal Anadromous Fish Conservation Act of 1965.

Back then just one local nuclear plant was operating, Yankee Atomic, 20 miles away in Rowe, MA.  But big, local, nuclear build-out plans were in the offing—the lion’s share of which would come to be owned by Northeast Utilities.  Fifteen miles upstream Vermont Yankee was under construction.  It opened in 1972 in lock-step with the completion of Northfield.  As VY and NMPS began tandem, nuclear-powered operation, plans were already underway for NU to build two reactors at a new Montague Nuclear Station, five miles from Northfield.

By fall of 1973 a 500 foot tower loomed over the Montague Plains, testing humidity, temperature, and prevailing winds in preparation for construction.  That tower was toppled in an act of civil disobedience by Sam Lovejoy the following February, helping bolster opposition to the plants.  But NU rebuilt the tower and collected the mandated data by 1975.  By then however, the playing field was changing.

Environmental questions were raised about the effects of Montague Nuclear Station’s drawing huge amounts of river water and dumping heated effluent back into the Connecticut on the federally-endangered Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon.  Questions also arose about the cumulative effects of entraining various life stages of American shad into the intake systems of two Montague plants and NMPS. 

Meanwhile, NU moved ahead on planned nuclear plants for the heavily-populated I-95 Providence-/New Haven corridor–some 100 and 125 miles distant from Northfield.  Four got built, but just two operate today. Their Haddam nuclear plant on our river was shut permanently in 1996 for safety and equipment failures.  So too in 1998 was Millstone Unit I in Waterford, CT.  In 1999 NU to accepted the largest nuclear fine to that time–$10 million for operational failures at those plants. 

Opposition, environmental impacts, soaring costs, and a partial meltdown at Three Mile Island saw NU abandon Montague Station in 1980.  Thus the Connecticut River basin doesn’t today host a forth, de-facto, nuclear waste dump.  Rowe’s Yankee Atomic closed in 1992—it’s now repository to hundreds of tons of spent nuclear fuel.  Vermont Yankee will close in December.  Entergy Nuclear has yet to fully endow their mandated decommissioning fund. 

Local nuclear power to push a river up Northfield Mountain is today nearly nonexistent.  The net-loss “hydro” generating process now taking place there essentially derives from a non-renewable, climate-warming mix of oil, coal and natural gas, plus some nuclear and even pulses of conventional hydropower purchased from as far away as Quebec. Beyond the yet-to-be-examined costs to the public’s ecosystem and fish, consumers are paying dearly for Northfield’s twice-sold electricity.  A fair relicensing process requires robust public information on the lethal aspects of Northfield’s operations.  FERC will decide the issue by early May.

Greenfield writer and journalist Karl Meyer has contributed written and oral testimony in the FERC relicensing process for the Northfield Mountain and Turners Falls power stations.